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#1 Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI)
Introduction
Title:
Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI)
Author:
Bavolek, S.
Date:
1984
Domain:
Parenting Skills, Child Development, Family Relationships
Standardized:
Yes, the AAPI is a validated and reliable inventory used to assess parenting attitudes.
Instrument Type(s):
The AAPI is a 32-item self-report attitudinal inventory used to identify adolescents and adults at risk for inadequate parenting behaviors.
Uses of Information:
Can be used as a pre-post measure of parent attitudes and child rearing practices.
Environment:
Treatment and educational settings. The room in which the inventory is administered should be comfortable and adequately lighted. The examiner should provide an environment that assures privacy and confidentiality will be respected.
Description:
The goal in utilizing the AAPI is to gather information regarding an individual’s attitudes and beliefs toward parenting and child rearing. The responses to the items on the inventory provide an indication of the individual's abilities to parent children in a nonabusive manner. The most important use of the AAPI is assessment for treatment and education.
References:

Steele & Pollock (1968), Steele (1970)

http://nurturingparenting.com/research_validation/a1_aapi_summary%20short.pdf
http://www.nurturingparenting.com/aapi/
Cost:

The AAPI packages can be purchased as a complete set or individually. Prices range from $8 to $316. See the website below for a more detailed price list.

http://www.nurturingparenting.com/aapi/aapi2.htm#english
Availability of Test Manual:

Yes
http://www.nurturingparenting.com/aapi/aapi2.htm#english

Contact Information:

TOLL FREE 1-800-688-5822  

For questions regarding products
email fdr@nurturingparenting.com

For help with training and other questions
email info@nurturingparenting.com

Web: http://www.nurturingparenting.com/
Utility
Instructions:
The AAPI was developed from four parenting patterns found to contribute to abusive parent-child interactions. Scores from the AAPI indicate degrees of agreement and disagreement in the following, including: inappropriate developmental expectations of children, lack of empathy toward children's needs, belief in the use of corporal punishment, and reversing parent-child roles. Based on an individual's responses within each of the four parenting patterns, specific instructions can be implemented to remediate assessed parenting and child-rearing deficiencies.
Administrator:
There are two forms of the AAPI: Form A and Form B. For purposes of pretesting and posttesting or test-retest, the examiner should alternate the use of both forms. The examiner will need one test booklet for each individual to be assessed. The booklet comes complete with the test items questions for demographic information. Each person taking the AAPI should have a pencil to record his/her answers.
Qualification:
Any professional or paraprofessional who can read the instructions of the handbook may administer the AAPI.
Training Required:
One-day workshop to introduce the FAF followed by agency based supervision on an on-going basis. For more information, call 1-800-688-5822 .
Administration Time:
There is no time limit for responding to the AAPI. Generally, the distribution and completion of the entire inventory should take approximately 20 to 30 minutes.
Respondents:
The AAPI is designed for adolescents ages 12 to 19 and adults ages 20+.
Scales/Item Options:
The AAPI includes four subscales representing the most frequent patterns associated with abusive parenting: (a) Inappropriate Expectations; (b) Lack of Empathy; (c) Parental Value of Corporal Punishment; and (d) Parent-Child Role Reversal. Based on an individual’s response within each of the four parenting patterns, specific instructions can be implemented to remediate assessed parenting and child rearing deficiencies.
Scoring:

On-line scoring now available at http://www.aapionline.com/

Questionnaires may be scored by the monitoring program staff, and then given to parents by telephone, mail, or on home visits. Alternatively, staff can score the questionnaires on site or during a home visit and give parents immediate feedback. Parents can then keep the completed questionnaires while monitoring program staff can file the results recorded on the Information Summary Sheet. Also, parents can score the questionnaires using the Information Summary Sheets. Options must be chosen based on parent preferences, family characteristics, and program resources.

The method of attitudinal measurement selected was the method of summated ratings developed by Likert. A five-point selection range (SA = Strongly Agree; A = Agree; U = Undecided; D = Disagree; SD = Disagree) was utilized.
Languages:
English and Spanish
Psychometric Properties:

Validity: Criteria for selecting an item for inclusion on the inventory were preestablished at the minimum level of 80 percent. The results of the content validation activities indicated 100 percent agreement among experts relative to the accuracy of the identification and description of the four abusive parenting constructs. The results further indicated that 49 of the 60 items listed had met the preestablished criteria of 80 percent agreement among the experts for inclusion on the inventory.

Reliability: The test-retest reliability of the items range from -.1 (Item 16, Construct A) to .91 (Item 25, Construct C). Overall, the highest test-retest reliability is .89. The responses to the items in Construct A show the lowest reliability (.39) among the four constructs. The total test-retest reliability of all items is .76.



#2 Ages and Stages Questionnaires: A Parent-Completed, Child Monitoring System. Second Edition
Introduction
Title:
Ages and Stages Questionnaires: A Parent-Completed, Child Monitoring System. Second Edition
Author:
Bricker, D., Squires, J., & Twombly, E.
Date:
(Originally published) 1995
Domain:
Child Development, Parenting skills
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
19 Parent/caregiver questionnaires (vary by child’s age)
Uses of Information:
Screening questionnaires regarding infants and young children to determine the need for early intervention services or further evaluation. Is useful in teaching parents about typical developmental sequences and in assessing parents’ understanding of their children’s development.
Environment:
Home, physicians’ office, school, child care environments
Description:
The ASQ system can be used for two important purposes. First, the questionnaires can be used for comprehensive, first-level screening of large groups of infants and young children during the first 5 years of life. Second, the 30-item questionnaires can be used to monitor the development or delays resulting from medical factors such as low birth weight, prematurity, seizures, and serious illness or from environmental factors such as poverty, parents with mental impairments, history of abuse and/or neglect, or teenage parents. Use of the questionnaires is flexible for either first-level screening or monitoring programs (one-time only, 6-month intervals, or at selected intervals e.g., 12, 24, and 33 months). Each questionnaire covers five key developmental areas: communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem-solving, and personal-social.
References:
Parmelee & Cohen, 1985; Blackman, 1996; Sameroff, 1981; Werner & Smith, 1992; Knobloch, Stevens, Malone, Ellison, & Risemburg, 1979
Cost:

Complete ASQ System, Hardcopy: $199.00 (English, Spanish, French); $140.00 (Korean)

Complete ASQ System, CD-ROM: $175.00 (English, Spanish); $199.00 (Spanish, English)

Questionnaires Only: $175.00 (English, Spanish, French); $115.00 (Korean)

User’s Guide Only: $49.00
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes
Contact Information:

Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
Post Office Box 10624
Baltimore, MD 21285-0624
Web: www.brookespublishing.com

Utility
Instructions:
Paper and pencil and/or CD-Rom versions available
Administrator:
Parents or caregivers may administer the questionnaire. Scoring may be completed by clerical staff or parap rofessionals who have been instructed by professional staff.
Qualification:
Reading level of questionnaires range from fourth to sixth grade.
Training Required:

No specific training necessary in completing the questionnaire. Reading level of questionnaires ranges from fourth to sixth grade. Scoring may be accomplished by clerical worker or paraprofessional.

Questionnaires are designed to be administered by parents; however, the system requires professional involvement to establish the system, develop the necessary community interfaces, train individuals to score questionnaires, and provide feedback to parents of children completing the questionnaires.

Administration Time:
Each questionnaire can be completed in 10-15 minutes. Scoring can take as little as 2 minutes and no more than 5 minutes. Questionnaires may be scored by the monitoring program staff, and then given to parents by telephone, mail, or on home visits. Alternatively, staff can score the questionnaires on site or during a home visit and give parents immediate feedback. Parents can then keep the completed questionnaires while monitoring program staff can file the results recorded on the Information Summary Sheet. Also, parents’ can score the questionnaires using the Information Summary Sheets. Options must be chosen based on parent preferences, family characteristics, and program resources.
Respondents:
Parents of infants and young children.
Scales/Item Options:

Parents’ responses are yes, sometimes, and not yet for each question.

  • Examples from the 4-month questionnaire include: “Does your baby chuckle softly?”
  • Examples from the 6- month questionnaire include: “Does your baby make high pitched squeals?”; “When playing with sounds, does your baby make grunting, growling, or other deep-toned sounds?”
  • Examples from the 8-month questionnaire include: ”If you call to your baby when you are out of sight, does he look in the direction of your voice?”; “When a loud noise occurs, does your baby turn to see where the sound came from?”
Similar age-appropriate items are present on additional questionnaires, of which there are 19 total (administered at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36, 42, 48, 54, and 60 months).
Scoring:

Scoring can be done by clerical staff or paraprofessionals who have been instructed by professional staff. An ASQ Information Summary Sheet is included for each age interval. This form provides space for scoring the questionnaire, as well as space to record demographic information about the family and overall comments of the parents or caregivers. The sheet permits professional staff to keep a one-page summary or questionnaire results while allowing parents to keep the questionnaire for further reference about their child’s developmental level. To score the questionnaire, the parents’ responses (yes, sometimes, and not yet) are converted to points (10, 15, and 0 respectively) and are totaled for each area. These five areas are then compared with empirically derived cutoff points that are shown on bar graphs on the ASQ Information Summary Sheets.

Languages:
English, Spanish, French, Korean
Psychometric Properties:

Validity: Overall agreement across questionnaires is 83 percent, with a range of 76-91 percent. Sensitivity (i.e., children for whom the Ages & Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) system indicated a delay and who were categorized by the standardized assessment as having a delay) ranged from 38 percent to 91 percent. Specificity (i.e., children for whom the ASQ system did not indicate a delay and who were characterized by a standard assessment as developing typically) ranged from 81 percent to 91 percent. Positive predictive value (i.e., a measure of the probability that a child with a questionnaire that indicated delay would have a poor outcome on the standardized assessment) range from 32 percent to 64 percent.

Reliability: Test-retest information was collected by asking a group of 175 parents to compete two questionnaires for their children at 2- to 3- week intervals. Classification of each child based on the parents’ responses on the two questionnaires was compared and found to exceed 90 percent agreement. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by having a trained examiner complete a questionnaire for a child shortly after a parent had completed a questionnaire. Agreement on classification between 112 parents and 3 trained examiners was more than 90 percent.


#4 Bayley Scales of Infant Development
Introduction
Title:
Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID-II)
Author:
Bayley, N.
Date:
1969, 1987, 1993
Domain:
Child Development
Program Type:
Parent Education;  Home Visitation;  Early Childhood;   
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Developmental assessment tool
Uses of Information:
The BSID-II was designed for use in identifying areas of impairment or delay, developing curricula for interventions, and assessing the outcome of such interventions.
Environment:
Clinical setting, school setting  
Description:
BSID-II is an individually administered examination that assesses the developmental functioning of infants and children ages 1 year to 42 months.
References:
Dunst (1998), Bayley (1993), Black et al. (1999)
Cost:

$950.00- $1,100.00.

The BSID-II Introductory Kit has a listed price of $1,100.00. The kit includes the BSID-II manual; stimulus booklet; 25 each of the mental scale record forms, motor scale record forms (with tracing design sheet), and behavior rating scale record forms; 8 visual stimulus cards; map; and a carrying case.

Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. The manual provides instructions on administering and scoring the BSID-II and administration of the scales to children with physical or perceptual impairments. It also provides case studies that serve as examples of how information from several sources may be integrated, interpreted, and presented.
Contact Information:

Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. (PAR)
16204 N. Florida Avenue
Lutz, FL  33549
Telephone: 800.331.8378, Fax: 800.727.9329
Web: www3.parinc.com/products/product.aspx?Productid=BSID-II

Utility
Instructions:
Available in the test manual
Administrator:
Individual, clinician
Qualification:
Advanced professional degree
Training Required:
Yes. Appropriate training in the administration and interpretation of psychological tests and/or license or certification from an agency that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests.
Administration Time:
The administration time ranges from 25 minutes to 60 minutes, depending on the age of the child (25-35 minutes for children under 15 months, up to 60 minutes for children over 15 months).
Respondents:
Direct child assessment (1 month to 42 months of age)
Scales/Item Options:

The BSID-II consists of three scales: mental scale, motor scale and behavior rating scales.

Mental Scale yields a normalized, standardized score called the Mental Development Index, evaluating a variety of abilities: sensory/perceptual acuities, discriminations, and response; acquisition of object constancy; memory learning and problem solving; vocalization and beginning of verbal communication; basis of abstract thinking; habituation; mental mapping; complex language; and mathematical concept formation.

Motor Scale assesses the degree of body control, large muscle coordination, fine motor skills, dynamic movement, dynamic praxis, postural imitation, and stereognosis.

Behavior Rating Scale provides information that can be used to supplement information gained from the Mental and Motor scales. The 30-item scale rates the child's relevant test-taking behaviors and measures attention/arousal, orientation/engagement, emotional regulation, and motor quality.
Scoring:

Manual scoring

Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:

The BSID-II has moderate to high reliability. The variability of the internal consistency reliability coefficients of the 17 different age groups represented in the standardization sample can be attributed to the natural variability in children’s behaviors and functioning. Variability is highest among younger children aged 3 months to 12 months. Reliability results:

Mental Scale: range of 0.75 – 0.93; mean 0.88

Motor Scale: range 0.75 – 0.877; mean 0.84

Behavior Rating Scale Total Score: range 0.82- 0.92; mean 0.88

Validity information can be found in great length in the manual. In summary, the inter-correlation scores support the construct, predictive, and criterion validity as being moderate to high. These were established by comparing results and content to similar instruments in the field (BINS, BRS, MDI, PRS).


#5 Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2nd Ed. (BERS-2)
Introduction
Title:
Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale, Second Edition (BERS-2)
Author:
Epstein, H. M.
Date:
1998, 2004
Domain:
Child Development, Family Relationships, Parenting Skills
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Parent-child and observer report
Uses of Information:
The BERS-2 is useful in evaluating children for prereferral services, in placing children for specialized services, and in measuring the outcomes of services. Measures child strengths and competencies.
Environment:
Mental health clinics, juvenile justice settings, and child welfare agencies, and State and Federal agencies.
Description:

The Behavior and Emotional Rating Scale is a 52-item scale that assesses children's emotional and behavioral strengths in five subscales. The first subscale, Interpersonal Strengths, assesses a child's ability to control emotions or behavior in a social situation. The second subscale, Family Involvement, focuses on a child's participation and relationship with his or her family. The third subscale, Intrapersonal Strengths, assesses a child's outlook on his or her competence and accomplishments. Subscale four, School Functioning, focuses on a child's competence in school and classroom tasks. The fifth subscale, Affective Strengths, addresses a child's ability to express feelings toward others and to accept affection from others.

References:
Walker & McConnell (1998)
Cost:

$143.00-$168.00.

BERS-2 Introductory Kit: listed price: $143.00-$168.00. The kit includes the BERS-2 Examiner's Manual, 25 Teacher Rating Scales, 25 Parent Rating Scales, 25 Youth Rating Scales, and 50 Summary Forms.

Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. Demographics are reported in the manual. This includes age, gender, geographic location, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.
Contact Information:

Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. (PAR)
16204 N. Florida Avenue
Lutz , FL  33549
Tel: 800.331.8378, Fax: 800.727.9329
Web: www3.parinc.com/products/product.aspx?Productid=BERS-2#

Utility
Instructions:
Paper and pencil instrument
Administrator:
Parents, teachers, counselors, and clinicians
Qualification:
A degree from a 4-year accredited college or university in psychology, counseling, or a closely related field.
Training Required:
Yes. Completion of coursework in Test Interpretation, Psychometrics and Measurement Theory, Educational Statistics, or a closely related area. License or certification from an agency that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests.
Administration Time:
10 minutes
Respondents:
Children ages 5-18 years.
Scales/Item Options:

There are three scales: The Youth Rating Scale, the Parenting Rating Scale, and the Teacher Rating Scale.

Respondents are asked to rate the child on each of the 52 items on a scale of 0 to 3 (0 = not at all like the child, 1 = not much like the child, 2 = like the child, 3 = very much like the child). Respondents are also asked to complete eight open-ended questions about the child (e.g., "What are the child's favorite hobbies or activities?", "Who is this child's favorite teacher?"). The open-ended questions address resiliency and protective factors and may be useful for planning purposes.
Scoring:

Hand scoring

Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:

Test-retest reliability was excellent for all three forms:
- Teacher Rating Scale Composite Strength Index (r = .99) with subscale rs ranging from .85-.99.
- Parent Rating Scale Composite Strength Index (r = .87) with subscale rs ranging from .82-.92.
- Youth Rating Scale Composite Strength Index (r = .91) with subscale rs ranging from .84-.91.

Content validity, criterion validity, and construct validity were all examined and provide evidence that the BERS-2 is a valid measure of behavioral and emotional strength in children.


#6 Carey Temperament Scales (CTS)
Introduction
Title:
Carey Temperament Scales (CTS)
Author:
Carey, B.W.
Date:
2000
Domain:
Child and Family Health, Child Development, Parenting Skills, Family Relationships
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Parent survey
Uses of Information:
The CTS can help assess caregivers understanding of their child’s temperament and behavioral style. The scales can also be used by caregivers to help place a child in an environment more suitable to the child’s temperament or to adapt the environment (including the home and parenting strategies) to the child’s temperament.
Environment:
Clinical or research setting
Description:
The Carey Temperament Scales (CTS) are sets of items for obtaining a parent report of a child’s temperament. The CTS can be used in research and/or clinical practice.
References:
Carey (2000); Carey & McDevitt (1995); Levine, Carey, & Crocker (1992)
Cost:

$100.00.

Specimen set: $60 (includes a sample of each of the five CTS questionnaires with scoring and profile sheets, and the Test Manual)

Availability of Test Manual:
Yes
Contact Information:

Behavioral-Developmental Initiatives
14636 North 55th Street
Scottsdale, AZ 85254
Tel: 800.405.2313, FAX: 602.494.2688
E-mail: BDI@TEMPERAMENT.COM
Web: www.b-di.com

Utility
Instructions:
Paper and pencil instrument
Administrator:
Self-administered, but scored by a professional
Qualification:
Intended for professional use by persons licensed or certified to provide care to children and their parents.
Training Required:
Yes. A professional is needed for scoring and interpretation
Administration Time:
25-30 minutes
Respondents:
Parents of infants and young children 1-12 years old. Questionnaires are available for the following age ranges: 1 to 4 months, 4 to 11 months, 1 to 2 years, 3 to 7 years, and 8 to 12 years.
Scales/Item Options:

CTS are comprised of five different scales, three of which are particularly relevant to Early Head Start programs. These are the Early Infant Temperament Questionnaire (EITQ) for infants ages 1 to 4 months, the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire (RITQ) for infants ages 4 to 8 months (and applicable, but not normed, for ages 9 to 11 months), and the Toddler Temperament Scale (TTS) for children ages 1 to 2 years. The other two scales, the Behavioral Style Questionnaire (BSQ) and Middle Childhood Temperament Questionnaire (MCTQ), are for children ages 3 to 12.

Each scale contains up to 100 items that are rated on a six-point scale. The frequency ranges from almost never to almost always.
Scoring:

Manual and computer scoring

Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:

In order to determine whether the scores were reliable over time, researchers used test-retest method. The range in administration time was 20-75 days. Score variability was greatest for infants to three year olds. As a result the low end of the score range is for the youngest and the higher reliability is for the older children. The range is 0.64 to 0.94.

The CTS is based on well-known temperament theory and as such has high construct reliability. Content validity (items on the questionnaire and behaviors describe) is additionally high as the authors provide evidence of quantitative methods to study and control item validity.



#7 Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)
Introduction
Title:
Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)
Author:
LS Radloff
Date:
(Originally published) 1977
Domain:
Child and Family Health, Family Relationships, Parenting Skills
Standardized:
Not specified
Instrument Type(s):
20-item ordinal scale
Uses of Information:
The CES-D is designed as primary screening instrument for clinical and research with individuals in the general population who are considered to be at-risk for depression. The 20-items on CES-D do not serve as a diagnostic instrument. As a screening device, it is used to measure the degree of depressive symptoms individual’s experience. It is recommended to be mindful of interpret an individual’s scores in relation to a reference group and to remember that the cut-off scores are insufficient to be used for diagnosis of depression.
Environment:
During a client interview or via self-report
Description:

The CES-D is economical, efficient, and provides useful information about the cognitive and affective components of depressive sympotomatology. It contains 20 items selected from previously validated scales of depression. It addresses six components of depression such as depressed mood, feelings of guilt and worthlessness, feelings of helplessness and hopelessness, psychomotor retardation, loss of appetite, and sleep disturbance.

Its purpose is to estimate symptom prevalence and to be used as a first-stage screening device in clinical and research efforts. It has been said to measure multiple dimensions of affective symptomatology and current depressive symptoms within the last week, in the general population, with an emphasis on mood (see reference 3).
References:

(1) Hann D, Winter K, Jacobsen P. Measurement of depressive symptoms in cancer patients: evaluation of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). J Psychosom Res. 1999; 46(5):437-43.

 

(2) Radloff, L.S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychogical Measure, 1, (1977), pp. 385–401

 

(3) METRIC: Measurement Excellence and Training Resource Information Center

http://www.measurementexperts.org/instrument/instrument_reviews.asp?detail=12

 

(4)RCMAR Measurement Tools

http://www.musc.edu/dfm/RCMAR/CESD.html

Cost:

Free

Short version: http://patienteducation.stanford.edu/research/cesd10.html

Short and Full Version: http://www.themeasurementgroup.com/modules/mods/module26.htm

Full Version:
http://www.emu.edu/studentlife/counseling/depression_screening.pdf

Availability of Test Manual:
None
Contact Information:

 

http://pathwayscourses.samhsa.gov/aaap/aaap_4_supps_pg8.htm

Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale
Developed by NIMH
Available from NIMH
6001 Executive Boulevard
Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663
phone: 301-443-4513

USA toll free 1-866-615-NIMH (6464)

toll-free TTY: 301-443-8431

Fax: 301-443-4279

Web: www.nimh.nih.gov
Utility
Instructions:
Located on the CES-D scale form.
Administrator:
Not specified
Qualification:
Ability to read at a fourth grade reading level to complete as either a self-report or interview.
Training Required:
None
Administration Time:
Completing the CES-D scale takes up to 10 minutes.
Respondents:
Useful for the general and psychiatric population of adolescents, adults and for the elderly.
Scales/Item Options:

The 4-point ordinal scale consists of items addressing four factors: depressive affect (seven items), somatic symptoms (seven items), positive affect (four items), and interpersonal relations (two items).

Answers to items are as follows:

  • 0=rarely or none of the time (less than 1 day)
  • 1=some or little of the time (1-2 days)
  • 2=occasionally or a moderate amount of the time (3-4 days)
3=most or all of the time (5-7 days)
Scoring:

Scores range from 0-60 and are not valid if answers to more than four items are missing. Scores are obtained from the sum of the 20-items.

Interpreting the scores is as follows:

  • 22 or higher indicates probable Major Depression
  • 15-21 indicates the need for more in depth assessment and treatment for Mild to Moderate Depression
15 or less is not indicative of depression

 

Languages:
Dutch, English, Spanish, Various short versions
Psychometric Properties:

Studies using the CES-D indicate that it has very good internal consistency, acceptable test-retest stability, and construct validity. Reliability and validity of the scale have been tested in general and clinical populations, yielding very good internal consistency with an alpha of 0.85 for the general population and 0.90 for a psychiatric population. Satisfactory test–retest reliability over a 2- to 8-week period ranged from 0.51 to 0.67 and from 0.32 to 0.54 over a 3- to 12-month period. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations with other scales designed to measure depression. Last, differences between the psychiatric in- patients and the general population established construct validity (obtained from reference 1).

The CES-D was evaluated for subsets of the original population including persons older than 64 and Blacks.   Coefficient alpha remained high (> 0.85) in all subgroups.  Test-retest correlations remained >0.40 for the elderly group, but not for Blacks. ( Detailed Notes)


#8 Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI)
Introduction
Title:
Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP Inventory)
Author:
Milner, J.S.
Date:
1977, 1982, 1984, 1986
Domain:
Child and Family Health, Child Development, Parenting Skills, Family Relationships
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Parent report
Uses of Information:
The CAP Inventory is use as a screening tool in high-risk population for physical child abuse.
Environment:
Not reported
Description:
The CAP Inventory was designed as a screening tool for the detection of physical child abuse by protective services workers in their investigations of reported child abuse cases. The CAP contains 10 scales and 3 validity scales.
References:
Bringiotti, et al. (1998), De Paul et al. (1991)
Cost:

$135.00

CAP Inventory Introductory Kit has a listed price of $135.00.

(includes CAP Inventory Manual, (2nd Ed.), An Interpretive Manual for the CAP Inventory, 10 Inventory Form VI Booklets, 10 Raw Score Summary Sheets, 10 Inconsistency Scale Scoring Sheets, and 1 Complete Scoring Template Set).
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes, The CAP Inventory Manual (2 nd Ed.) describes the development, structure, validity and information on administration and scoring of the CAP Inventory.
Contact Information:

Psytec, Inc
P.O. Box 564,
DeKalb, IL 60115
Tel: 815-758-1415

Utility
Instructions:
Paper and pencil instrument
Administrator:
Trained nonprofessionals
Qualification:
A degree from an accredited 4-year college or university in psychology, counseling, or a closely related field plus satisfactory completion of coursework in Test Interpretation, Psychometrics and Measurement Theory, Educational Statistics, or a closely related area or license or certification from an agency that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests.
Training Required:
Yes. A trained nonprofessional can administer the tool, but a trained social worker, counselor, psychologist, or other professional with advance training in test interpretation should interpret the scores.
Administration Time:
Approximately 12-20 minutes
Respondents:
Parents
Scales/Item Options:

The CAP Inventory contains a total of 10 scales. The primary clinical scale (Abuse) can be divided into six factor scales: Distress, Rigidity, Unhappiness, Problems With Child and Self, Problems With Family, and Problems With Others. In addition, the CAP Inventory contains three validity scales: Lie, Random Response, and Inconsistency.

Self-report questionnaire in agree/disagree format.
Scoring:

The CAP can be score using a hand-scoring template or a computer scoring program.

Languages:
English, Spanish, Greek and Croatian
Psychometric Properties:
The CAP Inventory has high internal consistency reliabilities (.92-.96 for controls and .95-.98 for abusers). Temporal stability estimates for the abuse scale are also adequate (.91 and .75 for one-day and three-month intervals).


#9 Child Behavior Check List (CBCL)
Introduction
Title:
Child Behavior Check List (CBCL)
Author:
Achenbach, T.A.
Date:
1991, 2001
Domain:
Child Development, Parenting Skills
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Parent survey, Teacher survey and youth self-report
Uses of Information:
The CBCL is a tool for assessing a child’s behaviors. It can be used as a pre-post measure of child behavioral change.
Environment:
Home visiting programs, school settings, clinical or research setting
Description:
The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was designed to assess behavioral problems and social competencies of children as reported by parents. The CBCL can also be used to measure a child's change in behavior over time or posttreatment. Additional report forms (e.g., Teacher Report Forms, Youth Self-Reports, and Direct Observation Forms) are also available for the CBCL. Two versions of this instrument exist: one for children ages 1 1/2-5 and another for ages 6-18. Information below pertains to the CBCL for 6-18 year olds.
References:
Achenbach (1991), Achenbach & Rescorla (2001), Achenbach (1991)
Cost:
Manual $35.00, sets of forms, 50 for $25.00, Scoring software, $230.00. A Starter kit that includes computer software for scoring and reporting on data, all three sets of forms and the manual is $350.00
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes, can be ordered at http://www.aseba.org/2006%20Catalog.pdf
Contact Information:

Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment
1 South Prospect Street, Room 6436
Burlington, VT 05401-3456
Tel: 802.656.8313, Fax: 802.656.2608
Email: mail@ASEBA.org / Web: www.ASEBA.org

Utility
Instructions:
Paper and pencil instrument
Administrator:
Self-administered by parents or administered by an interviewer
Qualification:
Master's degree
Training Required:
No specified training, although familiarity with the instrument is required
Administration Time:
15 minutes
Respondents:
Parents, teachers and children who are 6-18 years old
Scales/Item Options:

The six DSM-oriented scales are: Affective Problems; Anxiety Problems; Somatic Problems; Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems; Oppositional Defiant Problems; and Conduct Problems. The DSM-oriented scales are scored from all three forms. Inattention and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity subscales are also scored from the TRF Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems scale.

A three-point scale is used, The scale ranges from “not true” to “often true”.
Scoring:

Computer and manual scoring

Languages:
Spanish and English
Psychometric Properties:
The range of test-retest value: 0.95 to 1.00
The range of interrater reliability: 0.93 to 0.96
The range of internal consistency: 0.78 to 0.97
Criterion validity was assessed and found to be acceptable.


#11 Children’s Depression Inventory
Introduction
Title:
Children’s Depression Inventory
Author:
Kovacs, M.
Date:
1992
Domain:
Family and Child Health, Child Development, Family Relationships
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Self-report
Uses of Information:
To assess depressive symptoms of youth and develop a targeted treatment plan. Although the CDI is an ideal measure for treatment progress, monitoring or quality assurance, and meeting managed care requirements; it should be used with other assessment instruments for diagnosis and monitoring treatment progress.
Environment:
The CDI is commonly administered in schools, guidance clinics, and medical pediatric settings.
Description:

The CDI is a reliable and well-tested clinical research instrument designed for school-aged children and adolescents. The CDI evaluates the presence and severity of specific depressive symptoms. It is a self-report instrument, which can be administered on an individual or group basis. For either procedure, the administrator must read every CDI item and give the child time to mark the answer before continuing.

The CDI is written at the lowest reading level of any measure of depression for children. There are 27 items quantifying symptoms such as disturbed mood, hedonic capacity, vegetative functions, self–evaluation and interpersonal behaviors. It covers the consequences of depression as they relate to children and functioning in school and with peers.

The short version (CDI: S) provides a quick measure of depressive symptoms, which is ideal for use as a screening tool. There are 10 items in the short version. Parent (CDI: P) and teacher (CDI: T) versions give multiple dimensions to assessment. Parents view the child’s behavior at home in family situations, while teachers rate the child’s behavior in academic and social situations at school.

The normative sample for the self-report consisted of 529 boys and 647 girls between the ages of 7 and 16. The sample used to standardize the parent and teacher versions consisted of 1,187 nonclinical parent evaluations and 631 nonclinical teacher evaluations; and 167 clinical parent evaluations and 114 clinical teacher evaluations of children with various diagnoses. Norms are separated into two age groups: 7 to 12 years and 13 to 17 years.

 

The CDI can be scored by hand or using a software program available from the publisher.
References:
Doerfler, Felner, Rowlison, Raley, & Evans, (1988); Finch, Saylor, Edwards, & McIntosh (1987); Helsel & Matson (1984); Hodges & Craighead (1990)
Cost:
The CDI Complete User's Package can be purchased for $170.00. The package includes the CDI Manual, 25 CDI QuikScore Forms, 25 CDI: S QuikScore Forms, 25 CDI: P QuikScore Forms, and 25 CDI: T QuikScore Forms. The CDI V.5 Software Kit can be purchased for $82.00 and includes the CDI Manual, CDI V.5 Getting Started Guide, and 25 Profile Report uses. The publisher offers a range of accompanying materials and purchase options.
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. Detailed data on scientific validation of the CDI are presented in the Technical Manual, including information on scale construction, temporal reliability, internal consistency, reliability, and test-retest reliability; discriminate validity and concurrent validity; gender and age effects; and sensitivity to change.
Contact Information:

 

Multi-Health Systems, Inc.
P.O. Box 950
North Tonawanda, NY
14120-0950

Tel: 800.456.3003 or 416.492.2627
Fax: 888.540.4484 or 416.492.3343
Email: customerservice@mhs.com

Web: http://www.mhs.com

Maria Kovacs, Ph.D.
Professor of Psychiatry
Department of Psychiatry
Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

3811 O'Hara St.
Pittsburgh , PA   15213
Tel: 412.246.5708, Fax: 412.246.5455
Email: kovacs@pitt.edu
Utility
Instructions:
Paper and pencil format. Software CDI versions are also available.
Administrator:
Psychologists, social workers, counselors, nurses, physicians, and other trained professionals and paraprofessionals.
Qualification:
B-Level User Qualification required. At a minimum, this requires the user to have completed courses in tests and measurement at a university or received equivalent, documented training.
Training Required:
Training is required. A professional with advanced training in psychological assessment and professional standards must assume responsibility for use, interpretation, and communication of results.
Administration Time:
15 minutes; 10 minutes for CDI Short
Respondents:
Children 7-17 years of age
Scales/Item Options:

The parent and teacher versions each have the following two scales: (1) Emotional Problems and (2) Functional Problems.

Respondents are given a group of three sentences and asked to choose the one that best describes him or her in the past two weeks. For example:

[ ] I am sad once in a while.

[ ] I am sad many times.

[ ] I am sad all the time.

[ ] My school work is all right.

[ ] My school work is not as good as before.

[ ] I do very badly in subjects I used to be good in.
Scoring:

The CDI can be scored by hand or using a software program that is available from the publisher. Essentially, each CDI item is assigned a numerical value from 0 to 2, with the higher values attributed to more clinically severe behavior. The total score is the sum of all the separate item scores.

Languages:

English, French (Canadian), Spanish, Italian, Japanese, Norwegian, Russian, Ukrainian, Afrikaans, Dutch, German, Hebrew, French (European), Hungarian, Lithuanian, Swedish, Spanish (European), Polish, Turkish, and South African English

 

For more information about the availability of CDI in languages other than English, please e-mail the publisher’s Translations Department at translations@mhs.com.
Psychometric Properties:
Reliability and validity have been established over many years of empirical research. The CDI has demonstrated consistent correlations with various syndromes, other scales, and replicated predictive relationships. Detailed data on the psychometric properties of the CDI are presented in the Technical Manual.


#12 Keys to Interactive Parenting Scale
Introduction
Title:
Keys to Interactive Parenting Scale© (KIPS)
Author:
Comfort, M., & Gordon, P. R.
Date:
2005; Revised 2008
Domain:
Parent Behavior
Standardized:
No
Instrument Type(s):
Observational Rating Scale
Uses of Information:
KIPS was developed as a brief, practical tool for paraprofessional and professional staff to assess parenting behavior in order to guide intervention services, monitor family progress, and evaluate program outcomes. KIPS identifies specific parenting strengths and areas for growth. In addition to caregiver assessment, KIPS can be used to guide staff observations, inform family goals, open dialogues with families about parenting strategies that promote their child's development and learning, facilitate case reviews, monitor changes in parenting behavior, and evaluate parenting outcomes.
Environment:

Home environment or a familiar community setting where parent-child play is comfortable. No special toys or standardized materials are required.

Description:

KIPS is a structured observational tool that requires training, certification, and annual recertification. KIPS involves a 20-minute observation of free play (15 minutes of play, 5 minutes of clean-up if developmentally appropriate) between a parent or caregiver and a child (2?71 months) using the toys or materials available in their home or a familiar community setting. The 12-item scale assesses the quality of parenting behavior using 1 (low quality) to 5 (optimal quality) ratings with behavioral anchors at the odd points of 1, 3, 5. KIPS items include:

  • Sensitivity of responses
  • Response to emotions
  • Physical interaction
  • Involvement in child's activities
  • Open to child's agenda
  • Engagement in language experiences
  • Reasonable expectations
  • Adapts strategies to child
  • Limits and consequences
  • Supportive directions
  • Encouragement
  • Promotes exploration/curiosity

Videotaping is highly recommended for accurate scoring and use in intervention with families.

References:

Comfort & Gordon (2006); Comfort, Gordon, & Unger, (2006)

www.ComfortConsults.com

Cost:

Online training (30-day subscription to training and 1-year subscription to library: $135 per person
Onsite training (up to 15 staff): $3000 plus travel & expenses
KIPS Annual Check-Up (recertification): $30 per person
Training Workbook: $25
Scoring Form Set (25-pack): $25
Scoring Form Set (50-pack): $45
Scoring Form Set (100-pack): $80

KIPS materials are sold only to certified users

Availability:

Training Workbook is available only with training participation

Contact Information:

Marilee Comfort, Ph.D., M.P.H.
Phil Gordon, Ph.D.
Comfort Consults, LLC
P.O. Box 82
Cheyney, PA 19319
Tel: 610.455.1463
Email: info@comfortconsults.com

Web: www.ComfortConsults.com
Utility
Instructions:
Quality of parent (or other caregiver) behavior in the context of the child's needs during parent-child play interaction with a child 2-71 months old.
Administrator:
Paraprofessional or professional staff person who provides parenting education or support services to family
Qualification:
KIPS training, certification, annual recertification
Training Required:

KIPS training is available in two formats:

KIPS eLearning© is an Internet-based training or a 2-day training workshop for small groups. The training consists of an orientation to observational assessment and the KIPS scale, followed by practice scoring each of the items with family videos. Learners then rate progressively more items and eventually practice rating all 12 items simultaneously. At the end of the training is a certification exam. Annual recertification is required via the online KIPS Annual Check-Up. The online KIPS Library offers ongoing support for scoring practice via a searchable database of family characteristics and a scoring discussion for each play video. The library also offers resources and information for implementation of KIPS with families.
Administration Time:
20 minutes to observe; 10 minutes to score
Respondents:
Paraprofessional or professional staff observe and assess one parent/caregiver and one child playing together.
Scales/Item Options:

Total scale with 12 items (see description above).
Staff person rates the quality of parent's behavior during play interaction in the context of the child's needs using 12 KIPS items set on 5-point scales with behavioral anchors at odd points. 

Sample item:
How open is the caregiver to the child's agenda?

(1) Caregiver usually chooses the activities or shows little flexibility whether or not the child cooperates.
 
(3) Caregiver sometimes chooses activities, and
child sometimes chooses activities.

(5) Caregiver often follows child's choice of activities and supports child in making and pursuing his/her own choices of activities.

Scoring:

Twelve KIPS items are rated from 1 to 5 based on the 20-minute observation of parent-child play. Ratings are summed and divided by the number of items scored to obtain an average overall KIPS score.

Languages:
Scoring forms are in English and Spanish.
Psychometric Properties:

A 2004 study of 101 caregivers consisting of recovering mothers, Head Start fathers, and community volunteers in the Philadelphia vicinity represented 72 percent low-income and 28 percent middle-income families. Caregivers ranged from 20 to 70 years of age; 60 percent were mothers, 38 percent were fathers, and 2 percent were grandmothers. The caregivers were 59 percent African-American, 27 percent Caucasian, 9 percent Latino, 4 percent Asian, and 1 percent other. The children were 52 percent female and 48 percent male and ranged in age from 2 to 71 months, with a mean age of 34.6 months (sd=19.6). Eight percent had special health or developmental needs. KIPS scores showed high internal consistency (alpha=.89) and high interrater agreement (96 percent). A partial correlation, controlled for sample membership, showed a significant association of KIPS and the validated Parent/Caregiver Involvement Scale (r = .44, p = .014), suggesting they measure a similar construct. ANOVA of KIPS mean scores showed one of the four groups, mothers recovering from substance abuse, had significantly lower KIPS scores (F=27.58, p<.0001), suggesting that KIPS is sensitive enough to detect differences in parenting behavior in at-risk populations.

In a 2005 field test funded by NICHD, the authors partnered with two service agencies, an Early Head Start Program (EHS) and a statewide Parents asTeachers program (PAT), to investigate whether staff trained on KIPS could objectively assess families in their programs. Twenty Family Service Providers assessed 100 diverse caregivers who were 84 percent female, 16 percent male;  56 percent African-American, 19 percent Caucasian, and 12 percent Hispanic. The children's average age was 24 months, ranging from 2 to 61 months, and 18 percent had special needs. Results showed very high staff-expert agreement on KIPS scores (92.4 percent), suggesting that staff could objectively assess parents/caregivers in their case loads.  Further results showed high internal consistency (alpha = .96),  a wide range in KIPS mean scores ( 1.90 to 4.88), and significant differences between programs (EHS=3.29 [.74], PAT=4.03 [.64], p <.0001) that served very different demographic groups. KIPS scores were significantly correlated with caregiver age, education, employment, and marital status. When adjusted for age, employment, education, and marital status, race and ethnicity were not significant factors. Using partial correlations controlled for program status, KIPS scores were significantly correlated with staff ratings of caregiver engagement in services (r = .39, p <.0001) and the extent (r = .39, p <.0001) and intensity of child playfulness (r = .39, p <.0001). Quantitative and qualitative data from EHS and PAT staff indicated KIPS was practical and useful for use with families in their service settings.

In 2007-08 KIPS data were collected on 397 randomly selected families served by a statewide Healthy Families program. Factor analyses showed one coherent factor for the 12 KIPS items and internal consistency of alpha=.94. Major results indicated an overall KIPS mean of 3.4, with no significant differences for caregiver gender or race/ethnicity (African-Americans, Caucasians, Latinos, Others). Researchers found significant associations of KIPS with caregiver age (<18 years versus Older, p <.05), marital status (single versus ever married, p <.01), and education (less/equal to HS versus any college, p <.01). Researchers also found significant correlations of KIPS with widely used observational measures, including the NCAST Teaching Scale Caregiver Total (r=.35, p = .0001) and the HOME Infant/Toddler Scale CG Acceptance (r=.25, p <.01) and Responsivity (r=.19, p <.05). KIPS also correlated significantly with the Staff Rating of Engagement in services (r=.22, p <.0001) and the parent's report of Knowledge of Child Development (r=.18, p <.0001). There were no significant correlations with initial family stress/risks or child development via ASQ. KIPS scores did not differ significantly according to parent or child gender, race/ethnicity, employment, child age group, or child special needs. Family service programs have shown that parenting outcomes assessed by KIPS increase significantly with intervention.


#13 Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS)
Introduction
Title:
Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS)
Author:
Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Boney-McCoy, S., Sugarman, D. B., Finkelhor, D., Moore, D. W., & Runyan, D. K.
Date:
1973, 1998
Domain:
Family Relationships, Child and Family Health
Standardized:
No
Instrument Type(s):
Parent-report (i.e., self-administered) or direct parent assessment (i.e., administration in person or over the telephone)
Uses of Information:
The CTS have been used to evaluate violence within families and intimate relationships. The CTS have been recognized as the standard survey tool for assessing domestic violence. The CTS meet the practical needs of family therapists, social workers, and other mental health professionals and can be easily added to standard intake procedures.
Environment:
Not specified.
Description:

The Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS) have been used for decades to evaluate violence within families and intimate relationships. The widespread use of these scales has resulted in a proliferation of adapted forms and some confusion about their clinical and research application. The handbook on the CTS clarifies the situation by compiling and organizing, in a single source, the large body of information about the CTS. In addition, the handbook presents two updated versions of the instrument that serve as standard forms, namely, the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS 2) and the Conflict Tactics Scale: Parent-Child Version (CTS PC).

 

The CTS 2 brings the instrument up to date by correcting the psychometric shortcomings of the original. It is the recommended form for assessing partner violence. The CTS PC is the recommended form for evaluating child maltreatment and parent-to-child violence.
References:
Straus, M.A. (1973, 1974, 1990); Schafer, J. (1996)
Cost:

$75.00 The CTS KIT can be purchased from the publisher for $75.00. The KIT includes the handbook, 10 CTS 2 AutoScore™ Forms, and 10 CTS PC AutoScore™ Forms.

A package of 25 CTS 2 AutoScore™ Forms or CTS PC AutoScore™ Forms can be purchased for $38.50 each, and a quantity price break is available from the publisher.

The handbook alone costs $49.50.
Availability of Test Manual:

Yes. The handbook describes the evolution of the CTS 2 and the CTS PC, provides examples of their use in various settings, discusses their psychometric properties, and offers practical guidance regarding administration and scoring. It also includes survey results from a number of groups for comparative purposes. Because the CTS are not typical psychological tests, the handbook does not include broad-based standard scores or information about diagnostic interpretation.

Western Psychological Services has published a new handbook for the CTS to replace the old handbook published by the Family Research Laboratory. The old CTS handbook (now called the SOURCEBOOK) can be purchased for $25.00 (including postage in the USA; foreign postage is $10 additional) from the Family Research Laboratory.
Contact Information:

 

If there is a need to alter the published version or if there is a need to print the CTS for computer scoring, arrangements must first be made with Susan Dunn Weinberg (weinberg@wpspublish.com) of Western Psychological Services for licensing and royalty payments for the number of copies needed.

Western Psychological Services
12031 Wilshire Blvd.
Los Angeles , CA 90025-1251
http://www.wpspublish.com

Murray A. Straus
Family Research Laboratory
University of New Hampshire
126 Horton Social Science Center

Durham , NH 03824
Tel: 603.862.2594
Email: murray.straus@unh.edu
Web: www.unh.edu/frl
Utility
Instructions:
Paper and pencil instrument.
Administrator:
The CTS can be administered in a self-report or interview format.
Qualification:
An individual with roughly a sixth-grade reading level can complete the scales.
Training Required:
Yes. The training course is a 4-hour workshop that Dr. Straus runs every year in connection with an annual conference on family violence research.
Administration Time:
The CTS 2 and the CTS PC can each be completed in 10 minutes.
Respondents:
Parents of children. Because the CTS target specific actions, they do not require that respondents recognize their own behavior as violent in order to answer questions about it. They can be completed by one partner or by both partners separately.
Scales/Item Options:

The instrument has four scales: Parent-Child Scale (Scale 1), Partner-Child Scale (Scale 2), Parent-Partner (Scale 3), and Partner-Parent Scale (Scale 4). The Parent-Child and Partner-Child Conflict Scales each have five subscales and the two Parent-Partner Scales have four subscales each. The five subscales are (1) verbal discussion, (2) verbal aggression, (3) hostile-indirect withdrawal, (4) physical aggression, and (5) spanking (see Strassberg, Dodge, Bates, & Pettit, 1992; Strassberg, Dodge, Pettit, & Bates, 1994). The Parent-Partner and Partner-Parent Scales do not include the spanking subscales. Subscale scores are created by taking the mean for each set of variables for a given subscale by observation and then by finding the subscale means across all observations.

The CTS 2 includes 78 items, half referring to the respondent’s behavior and half to the partner’s behavior. Using an eight-point scale, the respondent indicates how often each behavior has occurred. This produces “Self” and “Partner” scores for the following dimensions: Negotiation, Physical Assault, Injury; Psychological Aggression; and Sexual Coercion.

The CTS PC is composed of 35 items, most focusing on the respondent’s behavior with his or her child and several inquiring about the parent’s own experiences as a child. These items yield scores for the following areas: Nonviolent Discipline Physical Assault; Neglect; Psychological Aggression; Weekly Discipline; and Sexual Abuse.

Both forms identify and quantify the level of abuse in families, specifically, with regard to wife beating and child abuse. Their primacy focus is on physically aggressive acts of intimidation and coercion.
Scoring:

Manual scoring. The CTS 2 test form includes space to record scores from an appropriate comparison sample selected from the handbook.

Languages:
English, Chinese, Dutch, Finish, Flemish, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Sesotho, Spanish, Swedish, and Zulu
Psychometric Properties:
The factor structure is consistent across studies using widely varying populations and conducted by different investigators. The internal consistency reliability is moderate due to the small number of items in each scale. The concurrent validity measures of agreement between family members are within the range of validity coefficients typically reported. There is strong evidence of construct validity, as it has been used in a large number of studies producing findings that tend to be consistent with previous research (when available), consistent regardless of gender of respondent, and theoretically meaningful. The handbook on the CTS provides detail on its psychometric properties.


#15 Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales
Introduction
Title:
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales
Author:
Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V.
Date:
1984
Domain:
Child and Family Health, Child Development, Parenting Skills
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Individual parent/caregiver interviews
Uses of Information:
The VABS are useful in assessing an individual’s daily functioning. They can be used as an evaluation and diagnostic tool for individuals with mental retardation or individuals with other disabilities. They can also be used to develop individual educational, rehabilitative, and treatment programs and can monitor progress during such a program. Finally, the VABS can be used in research in which the development and functioning of individuals with or without disabilities are investigated.
Environment:
Unspecified
Description:
The Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales (VABS) are designed to assess personal and social functioning of individuals with or without disabilities. There are two versions of the revised Vineland that can be used with infants and toddlers . Each version differs in the number of items and materials and the method of administration. The Interview Edition, Survey Form, which is more similar in content to the original VABS, adaptive behavior. It is administered to a parent or caregiver in a semistructured interview format. The Interview Edition, Expanded Form, has 577 items, including 297 from the Survey Form. This form yields a more comprehensive assessment of adaptive behavior and gives a systematic basis for preparing individual educational, rehabilitative, or treatment programs. The Expanded Form can be used by itself or as a follow-up to obtain more information about deficits suggested by the Survey Form. Both versions are organized around four Behavior Domains: Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization, and Motor Skills. For the Survey Form, items are organized in domains in developmental order. For the Expanded Form, items are in clusters, which are organized in developmental order under sub-domains that make up the domains.
References:
www.VinelandForum.com
Cost:
Complete Vineland Starter Set (Includes Survey Form Starter Set, Expanded Form Starter Set, and Classroom Edition Starter Set): $170
Availability of Test Manual:
The survey forms come with a manual.
Contact Information:

American Guidance Service
www.agsnet.com/index.asp
Tel: 800.328-2560

For additional information on the Vineland see: http://www.agsnet.com/assessments/technical/vineland.asp#8
Utility
Instructions:
Paper and pencil and on-line versions available
Administrator:
Social worker or psychologist (or equivalent)
Qualification:
Individual administering the VABS should be a social worker, psychologist or equivalent.
Training Required:
Yes. The website, www.VinelandForum.com, contains research, information, frequently asked questions, and discussion about the VABS. A training video is available to help train psychologists and others who administer the VABS Survey and Expanded Survey Form. In addition, there is a training tool available on CD-ROM designed to help professionals learn how to properly administer and score the Interview Editions of the VABS. An audiocassette, which accompanies the Survey Form or the Expanded Form, is also available for training purposes and contains sample interviews with parents and other caregivers.
Administration Time:
Survey Form: 20 to 60 minutes; Expanded Form: 60 to 90 minutes
Respondents:
Parent or caregiver
Scales/Item Options:
Unspecified
Scoring:

Each item is rated 2 (behavior is usually or habitually performed), 1 (sometimes or partly performed), or 0 (never performed). In addition, there is a code “N” for instances when the child has never had the opportunity to perform the activity and a code “DK” when the caregiver does not know if the child performed the activity. The manuals provide users with instructions for scoring caregiver responses. Domain and, in the Expanded Form, sub-domain raw scores are obtained by summing the numerical values of the responses. Using tables in the manuals, the raw scores can be converted into standard scores (with a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15), percentile ranks, stanines, and age equivalents. The sum of the domain standard scores is used to obtain the composite standard score. A table is then used to obtain the stanines and percentile rankings for the composite from the standard scores. The age equivalents for the composite score can be either the mean or median of the domain age equivalents. The manuals provide instructions for calculating the mean and median age equivalents. The domain standard scores are reported by age increments of 1 month up to 1 year, 11 months and 2-month increments between 2 and 3 years. Children under 6 years old share the same standard composite scores. Computer scoring software can be purchased.

Languages:

English and Spanish

Psychometric Properties:

Reliability 1) Split half-reliability: Internal reliability tests of both the Survey and Expanded Forms were performed on caregivers of children under age 19. The Survey Form split half coefficients for the age groups under 3 ranged from .82 to .95 for the Domains and .96 to 98 for Adaptive Behavior Composite; the Expanded Form split half coefficients ranged from .90 to .97 for the Domains and .98 to 99 for the Composite. (2) Test-retest reliability (mean of 17 days between tests): the Survey Form reliability coefficients for caregivers of children between the ages of 6 months and 2 years, 11 months ranged from .78 to .92 for the Domains and .90 for the Adaptive Behavior Composite. There were no test-retest reliability tests for the Expanded Form. (3) Interrater reliability: The Survey Form interrater reliability coefficients, with a mean of 8 days between the interviews of caregivers of children ages 6 months to 18 years, 11 months, ranged from .62 to .78 for the Domains and was .74 for the Adaptive Behavior Composite. There were no interrater reliability tests for the Expanded Form.

Validity: (1) Content validity included a literature review and field tests with caregivers. (2) Criterion-related validity: The correlations between the Adaptive Behavior Composite and the original VABS unadjusted Social Quotient and Silverstein’s Deviation Social Quotient (which corrects for inconsistencies in the Social Quotient) among caregivers of children between ages 6 months and 18 years, were both .55.

Comparisons between the total of the raw scores for the four domains of the revised VABS and the original VABS yielded a correlation of .97 in a sample of adults who were mentally retarded and an age-adjusted partial correlation of .88 in a sample of hearing-impaired children. The correlation between the VABS and the Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children, ages 5 to 11, was .58 and correlations between the revised VAB four domains and the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale, Part I, domains fell between .40 and .70.

Correlations between VABS and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, two intelligence tests, ranged from .07 to .52 and .12 to .37, respectively. The differential magnitudes of these correlations is said to support the assumption that adaptive behavior scales and intelligence and achievement scales measure different areas of functioning.


#16 Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS)
Introduction
Title:
Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS)
Author:
Spanier, G. B.
Date:
1976
Domain:
Family Relationships, Child and Family Health
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Couples survey, Self report measure of relationship adjustment
Uses of Information:
Can be used to plan treatment and to measure treatment outcomes related to healthy marriage/couple relationships.
Environment:
Couples counseling, therapy, office, home
Description:
The DAS is a 32-item self-report measure. It has good reliability and has been used in many research studies with a wide variety of couples (married, cohabiting, divorced), indicating good validity. The scale can be reviewed at this site: http://cfc.uoregon.edu/papers/DYADC.pdf
References:

Spanier (1976) http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/classics1986/A1986F158700001.pdf

Cost:
$50.00 Hand scoring: Kit - $120.00, Forms - $75.00, Manual – $50.00
Computer: Manual - $50.00, 50 Reports (min.) $180.00
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes
Contact Information:

Multi-Health Systems, Inc.,
P.O. Box 950, North Tonawanda, NY 14120-0950
Tel: 416.424.1700, Fax: 416.424.1736
Email: CUSTOMERSERVICE@MHS.COM
Web: www.mhs.com

Utility
Instructions:
Paper and pencil survey, software (Psychmanager)
Administrator:
Trainer, therapist
Qualification:
A 4-year degree in Psychology (psychometrist, counselor (psychometrics) or closely related health care professional) from an accredited university and relevant graduate level coursework in tests and measurements, under supervision of a psychologist registered with the HPCSA.
Training Required:
Not specified
Administration Time:
5-10 minutes
Respondents:
Adults
Scales/Item Options:
Four subscales: Dyadic Satisfaction, Consensus, Cohesion, Affectional Expression
Scoring:

Hand or computer

Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:
Reliability: Impressive internal consistency with an alpha of.96. The subscales have fair to excellent internal consistency DS= .94 DCoh= .81 DCon=.90 and AE= .73. Good validity.


#17 Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)
Introduction
Title:
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)
Author:
Cox, J.L., Holden, J.M., & Sagovsky, R.
Date:
1987
Domain:
Child and Family Health, Child Development
Standardized:
No
Instrument Type(s):
Self-report, Likert scale
Uses of Information:
The EPDS is designed to detect women suffering from postnatal depression. It does not provide information on the severity of the depression. A respondent whose score is indicative of probable postnatal depression should have a comprehensive assessment.
Environment:
The EPDS may be used to screen women at 6-8 weeks postpartum. The child health clinic, postnatal check-up, or a home visit may provide suitable opportunities for its completion.
Description:
The EPDS is a measurement tool developed to assist primary care health professionals to detect mothers suffering from depression during the postpartum (postnatal) period. The EPDS was developed at health centers in Livingston and Edinburgh. It comprises 10 short statements. The mother underlines which of the four possible responses is closest to how she has been feeling during the past week.
References:

Cox, Holden, & Sagovsky (1987); Murray, & Carothers (1990)

http://66.102.7.104/search?q=cache:LpKiT95o4-EJ:health.utah.gov/rhp/pdf/EPDS.pdf+Edinburgh+Postnatal+Depression+Scale+(EPDS)&hl=en&client=firefox-a

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&client=firefox-a&rls=org.mozilla%3Aen-US%3Aofficial&q=Edinburgh+Postnatal+Depression+Scale+%28EPDS%29&btnG=Search
Cost:
No charge
Availability of Test Manual:
No Manual
Contact Information:

 

Source: Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M., & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression: Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 782-786.

Users may reproduce the scale without further permission providing they respect copyright by quoting the names of the authors, the title, and the source of the paper in all reproduced copies.

A copy of the scale is available from a number of sites on the Internet. For example, an English version of the scale can be found at: http://www.dbpeds.org/articles/detail.cfm?TextID=485.

A Spanish version of the scale can be found at: http://www.perinatalweb.org/association/pdf_docs/Screening%20Escala.PDF.
Utility
Instructions:
Paper and pencil instrument
Administrator:
Self-administered. Care should be taken to avoid the possibility of the mother discussing her answers with others. The mother should complete the scale herself, unless she has limited English or has difficulty with reading.
Qualification:
None.
Training Required:
None. A handbook to reference for using EPDS: Perinatal Mental Health: a guide to the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale by John Cox and Jeni Holden
Administration Time:
Most mothers complete the scale without difficulty in less than 5 minutes
Respondents:
Women of childbearing age
Scales/Item Options:

Ten items scored using a 4-point Likert scale.

The mother is asked to underline the response that comes closest to how she has been feeling in the previous 7 days. All 10 items must be completed. The following is a sample item from the scale:

I have been anxious or worried for no good reason
No, not at all
Hardly ever
Yes, sometimes
Yes, very often
Scoring:

Scoring takes about 5 minutes. Responses are scored from 0 to 3 according to increased severity of the symptoms. Items marked with an asterisk are reverse scored (i.e., 3, 2, 1, and 0). The total score is calculated by adding together the scores for each of the 10 items. All 10 items must be completed.

Languages:
English, Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), Czech, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Icelandic, Japanese, Maltese, Norwegian, Portuguese, Punjabi, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish, Urdu, Vietnamese
Psychometric Properties:
Validity: Concurrent validity established from a validation study on British mothers, which found that a 12.5 cutoff score identified over 80 percent of the mothers with major depression and about 50 percent of the mothers with minor depression, and had a sensitivity value of 67.7 percent. Another study found a score of 9.5 or higher to be more appropriate for identifying depression among Chinese mothers.


#18 PREPARE/ENRICH Couple Scales
Introduction
Title:
PREPARE/ENRICH Couple Scales
Author:
Olson, D.
Date:
1993
Domain:
Family Relationships (Couples. Marriage)
Program Type:
Couples Marriage Enrichment, Fatherhood, Life Skills, Parent/Family Support
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
This is a set of five inventories (Likert scaled) that examine major relationship issues a couple may experience. 
Uses of Information:
Identify individual and couples’ traits that contribute to a healthy marriage. Assist in planning for marriage and marriage counseling.
Environment:
Home, office, church
Description:
ENRICH contains three 10-item subscales that can be used for research including Marital Satisfaction, Communication, and Conflict Resolution. There is also a seven item Idealistic Distortion Scale.
References:
Olson, Fournier, & Druckman
Cost:
$50 All inventories include scoring instructions and psychometrics (must have training to purchase).
Availability of Test Manual:

Manual comes with training package.

Contact Information:
Life Innovations
2660 Arthur St.
Roseville, MN 55113
Tel: 800.331.1661
Fax: 651.636.1668
Web: www.prepare-enrich.com
Utility
Instructions:
Paper and pencil or on-line
Administrator:
Therapist, clergy, counselor
Qualification:
Professional training degree (master's degree minimum) in psychology or similar area
Training Required:
Clergy members must attend a PREPARE/ENRICH Workshop. The average price of a workshop is $150 and they are usually about 6 hours in length.
Professional Counselors can self-train using the PREPARE/ENRICH Self Training program which includes a Counselor’s Manual, Question Booklets and Answer Sheets for all 5 Inventories and one complimentary on-line scoring credit. Cost: $195.00
Administration Time:
Not specified
Respondents:
Couples
Scales/Item Options:
Five-point Likert scale
Scoring:

Hand or online

Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:

From the ENRICH Website (http://www.prepare-enrich.com/about_us.cfm?id=33#Find_a_Counselor:

PREPARE/ENRICH has validity in that it discriminates premarital couples that get divorced from those that are happily married with about 80-85% accuracy. Reliability is high (alpha reliability of .80 - .85).”


#19 Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI)
Introduction
Title:
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI)
Author:
Eyberg, S.
Date:
1999
Domain:
Child Development, Parenting Skills
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Likert Scale (36 Items)
Uses of Information:
The ECBI and Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised (SESBI-R) are used as (1) screening measures in the clinical identification of children for the diagnosis and treatment of externalizing behavior problems, (2) screening measures in the identification of "high-risk" children for delinquency prevention programs, and (3) outcome measures in evaluations of treatment programs for conduct-disordered children.
Environment:
Home or school setting
Description:
The Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), designed to assess parental report of conduct behavioral problems in children and adolescents ages 2-16, measures the number of difficult behavior problems and the frequency with which they occur.
References:
Eyberg & Pincus (1999)
Cost:
ECBI/SESBI-R Introductory Kit has a list price of $159.00. The kit includes the ECBI and the SESBI-R professional manual, 50 ECBI test sheets, and 50 SESBI-R test sheets.
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. The manual provides normative data and information on the psychometric strength of the instruments.
Contact Information:

Psychological Assessment Resources
16204 North Florida Ave.
Lutz, FL 33549
Tel: 800.331.8378, Fax: 800.727.9329
Email: custserv@parinc.com
Web: http://www.parinc.com
Author: Sheila Eyberg,
University of Florida
Department of Clinical and Health Psychology
PO Box 100165
Gainesville, FL, 32610

Utility
Instructions:
Not specified
Administrator:
Parents, teachers, home visitors and/or program staff
Qualification:
A bachelor's degree in psychology, counseling, or related field. Relevant coursework in tests and measurement.
Training Required:
Training requires familiarity with the manual and questionnaires.
Administration Time:
5 minutes
Respondents:
Parents of children 2-16 years old
Scales/Item Options:
Each behavior is rated on two scales: a seven-point Intensity scale assesses how often the behaviors currently occur in the home or school setting (1 means “never”, 4 means “sometimes”, and 7 means “always”) and a Problem scale (Yes/No) identifies whether the child’s behavior is problematic for the parent or teacher.
Scoring:

Manual Scoring: The ECBI requires 5 minutes each to score. Interpreting the scores requires graduate training in psychology, counseling, or a closely related field.

Languages:
English. Unofficially translated by universities and other organizations into Welsh, Spanish, German, Norwegian, French, and Chinese.
Psychometric Properties:
Test-retest value: 0.86 to 0.88
Inter-rater reliability: 0.86 to 0.79
Internal consistency:  0.88 to 0.95
Criterion validity was assessed and found to be acceptable.


#20 Family Adaptability & Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES IV )
Introduction
Title:
Family Adaptability & Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES IV )
Author:
Olson, D. H., Gorall, D. M., & Tiesel, J.W.
Date:
2004
Domain:
Family Relationships
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Self-report Likert-scaled survey
Uses of Information:
Evaluate communication styles, family interactions, and flexibility
Environment:
Home, office, school, church
Description:
From the FACES website (http://www.facesiv.com) “Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scales (FACES) is a 62-item self-report instrument which assesses the two major dimensions of the Circumplex Model, i.e. family cohesion and family adaptability (flexibility). It is designed to be administered to families across the life cycle. FACES IV has the added scales of Family Communication and Family Satisfaction. Family Communication assesses the third dimension of the Circumplex Model (Communication) and Family Satisfaction assesses how happy family members are with their family system.”
References:
Olson (2004) http://www.facesiv.com/pdf/3.innovations.pdf
Cost:
$95 includes all inventories include scoring instructions and psychometrics
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes, Familiarity with the manual is necessary to use the instrument
Contact Information:

Contact by mail or fax:
Life Innovations, Inc.
P.O. Box 190
Minneapolis, MN 55440
Tel: 651.635.0511 or 800.331.1661
Web: www.facesiv.com

Utility
Instructions:
Paper and pencil, on-line
Administrator:
Therapist, clergy, counselor
Qualification:
Professional training degree (master's degree minimum) in psychology or similar area
Training Required:
Should be familiar with test manual
Administration Time:
15 minutes
Respondents:
12-year-olds and adults
Scales/Item Options:

Six 5-point Likert scales assess the dimensions of family cohesion and family flexibility.

Sample Items:

  • Family members are involved in each others lives.
There are strict consequences for breaking the rules in our family.
Scoring:

Handscored or online

Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:

These scales have very good levels of reliability and validity. Alpha reliability analysis of validation scales is included for comparison purposes. Reliabilities of the six FACES IV scales are as follows: Disengaged = .87, Enmeshed = .77, Rigid = .83, Chaotic = .85, Balanced Cohesion = .89, Balanced Flexibility = .80. Alpha reliability analysis was also run for the validation scales and ranged from .91 to .93.



#21 FAMILY NEEDS SCALE
Author:
Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Jenkins, V.
Date:
1986
Domain:
Sources of Support
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Parent self-report
Uses of Information:
The Family Needs Scale (FNS) measures a family’s need for different kinds of resources and support. The scale includes 41 items organized into categories of needs. Discussions that center around the responses on the scale can help clarify concerns and help define the precise nature of the family’s needs.
Environment:
Unspecified
Description:
Paper and pencil instrument, using a 41-item 5-point Likert scale
References:

Dunst (1985); Dunst (1986); Dunst, Trivette, & Deal (1988); Dunst, Trivette, & Deal (1994); Holroyd (1985)

Cost:

$15.00 for a 25-set license download

Availability of Test Manual:

Unspecified

Contact Information:

To order copies of the scale, visit: http://www.wbpress.com/index.php?main_page=product_book_info&products_id=235

Instructions:
The parent completes the tool in a center or home setting with staff available to answer questions. The parent rates each item according to how often they need assistance in that area.
Administrator:
Family members, caregivers of young children
Qualification:
Unspecified, self-administered by family members
Training Required:
No training requirement is specified by the developers. Some training support may be found in Supporting and Strengthening Families: Methods, Strategies, and Practices, published by Brookline Publishing.
Administration Time:
Parent can complete the scale in 10 minutes. The administrator can review the answers and interpret the scale, identifying places for concern, in under 10 minutes.
Respondents:
Family members or caregivers of young children
Scales/Item Options:

The scale consists of 41 items that the parent evaluates for sources of support (such as the immediate family, relatives, friends, and others in the family's social network, social organizations, and specialized and generic professional services). In addition, the scale provides two open items for parents to assess other sources of support. The parent rates each item on a 5-point Likert scale (ranging from Almost never [1] to Almost always [5]
Items include the following:
To what extent do you feel the need for any of the following types of help or assistance:

  • Having money to buy necessities and pay bills
  • Budgeting money
  • Paying for special needs of my child
  • Saving money for the future
Scoring:

After the parent has completed the scale, the administrator manually calculates overall scores for five domains: Basic Resources, Specialized Care, Growth & Support, Financial, Future Concerns.

Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:

Reliability and Validity: Coefficient alpha computed from the average correlation among the 41 items was .95. The total scale score, reflecting overall adequacy of resources, was significantly related to well-being, decision-making, and internal locus of control. Details of the psychometric properties are available with purchase of the scale.



#22 FAMILY RESOURCE SCALE
Introduction
Title:
Family Resource Scale
Author:
Dunst, C. J., & Leet, H. E.
Date:
1986
Domain:
Sources of Support
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Paper and pencil instrument, using a 30-item 5-point Likert scale
Uses of Information:
The Family Resource Scale helps identify appropriate resources needed by individual families. An overall index of family resources can be derived, and the scale identifies areas that may be targeted for services. The lack of resources may pose barriers to the family's involvement in their child's program, as families with unmet basic needs may not have time or energy to participate actively in the child's program. The Family Resource Scale may be used as an initial preservice assessment for identifying unmet needs and as a pre- to posttest tool for measuring program outcomes.
Environment:
Family resource center, home
Description:
This scale determines the extent to which different types of resources are adequate in the households of young children.
References:

Dunst (1986a); Dunst (1986b); Dunst, Trivette, & Deal (1988); Dunst, Trivette, & Deal (1994)

Cost:

$15.00 for a 25-set license download

Availability of Test Manual:

Unspecified

Contact Information:

To order copies of the scale, visit: http://tinyurl.com/familyresource

Utility
Instructions:
The parent completes the tool in a center or home setting with staff available to answer questions. The parent (or family member) marks the extent to which each of the resources is adequate for his/her family by selecting one of the following responses: Does Not Apply, Not at All Adequate, Seldom Adequate, Sometimes Adequate, Usually Adequate, and Almost Always Adequate. Those items rated Not at All Adequate or Seldom Adequate may be evidence that these needs are not being met.
Administrator:
Family Resource Center staff
Qualification:
Unspecified
Training Required:
No training requirement is specified by the developers. Some training support may be found in Supporting and Strengthening Families: Methods, Strategies, and Practices, published by Brookline Publishing.
Administration Time:
Parent (or other family member) can complete the scale in 10 minutes. A program administrator can review the answers and interpret the scale, in under 10 minutes
Respondents:
Parent self-report or report by other family member
Scales/Item Options:

The 30-item self-report Family Resource Scale measures the adequacy of a family's tangible and intangible resources using a 5-point scale, ranging from (1) Not at All Adequate to (5) Almost always adequate. The scale covers such resources as food, shelter, financial resources, transportation, health care, time to be with family, child care, and time for self. The resources are generally organized from the most to the least essential. A modified version of the scale for teenage mothers is available.
Items include the following:
To what extent are the following resources adequate for your family?

  • Food for 2 meals a day
  • House or apartment
Scoring:

After the parent or other family member has completed the scale, the administrator manually calculates overall scores for six domains: Growth and Support, Necessities and Health, Physical Necessities and Shelter, Intra Family Support, Child Care, and Personal Resources.

Languages:
English and Spanish
Psychometric Properties:

Reliability: The research sample consisted of 45 mothers of preschool-age retarded, handicapped, and developmentally at-risk children participating in an early intervention program. (1) Internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha) was .92; split-half reliability (using the Spearman-Brown formula) was .95; (2) Test-retest reliability (2 to 3 month interval) was .52.

Validity: (1) Concurrent validity: Both the personal well-being (Dunst 1986a) and maternal commitment (Dunst 1986b) measures were significantly related to the total scale score (.57 and .63, respectively). Details of the psychometric properties are available with purchase of the scale.


#24 Hawaii Early Learning Profile (HELP) Checklist
Introduction
Title:
Hawaii Early Learning Profile (HELP) Checklist
Author:
Furuno, S., O’Reilly, K.A., Hosaka, C.M., Inatsuka, T.T., Zeisloft-Falbey, B., & Allman, T.
Date:
1984, 1988
Domain:
Child Development, Child and Family Health
Standardized:
No
Instrument Type(s):
Direct child or parent assessment (checklist)
Uses of Information:
HELP can be used to identify needs, track growth and development, and develop plans for meeting objectives. It can be used to identify a child’s developmental skills and behaviors along multiple lines of development, the child’s developmental skill and behavior strengths and needs, physical and social environment factors affecting development, and the way development in one area may be affecting development in other areas.
Environment:
Not specified
Description:

HELP is a widely-used, family-centered, curriculum-based assessment for use by professionals working with infants, toddlers, young children, and their families.

HELP is used for identifying needs, tracking growth and development, and determining "next steps" (target objectives). It offers play-based activities and intervention strategies for each skill.

HELP is comprehensive and developmentally sequenced; it covers 685 skills (0-3 years) in six domains: Cognitive, Language, Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Social, and Self-Help.

HELP focuses on the whole child--the importance of supportive environments and interactions, building on strengths and providing activities for working on specific needs.
References:
Parks (1997)
Cost:

$127.00 Inside HELP: Administration and Reference Manual: $50
HELP Family-Centered Interview (0-3): $25 (package of 25)
HELP Strands (0-3): $3 each
HELP Checklist (0-3): $3 each
HELP Charts (0-3): $3 each
HELP Activity Guide (0-3): $28 each

A 20-minute training video, Using HELP Effectively, can be purchased from VORT for $14.95. It is recommended that this video be used in conjunction with the Inside HELP manual. The instruction chapter of the Inside HELP manual can be found in the training section on the VORT web page
Availability of Test Manual:
The comprehensive administration manual offers developmental assessment procedures for using HELP and provides sample culturally-sensitive family interview questions regarding the child's strengths and needs and family concerns, priorities, and resources related to enhancing the child's development.

Among other things, the manual helps with preparing meaningful functional outcome statements from the HELP skills for IFSP development that relates to daily life at home and in the community. It also offers procedures on how to use HELP to adapt for specific disabilities, how to understand a child's functioning in relationship with the parent/caregiver and the child's environment, and what the child can do within the context of play-based activities.
Contact Information:

VORT Corporation
P.O. Box 60132
Palo Alto, CA 94306
Tel: 650.322.8282
Web: www.vort.com

Utility
Instructions:
Print/manual. Additionally, all the HELP skills and activities as an integrated, curriculum-based management system, HELP Together are available on a disk or CD. The design of this software system adheres to and encourages the ongoing assessment process that serves as the foundation for HELP, and thus the software/database is sold only to programs and professionals already using HELP on a print/manual basis.
Administrator:
Used by physical, speech, and occupational therapists; early childhood educators; infant specialists; psychologists; social workers; and nurses.
Qualification:
Not specified
Training Required:
Yes
Administration Time:
An initial direct assessment may last from 45 to 90 minutes, but in some cases may be completed in 15 to 20 minutes.
Respondents:
Age range: infants and children 0-36 months, as administered by trained professional
Scales/Item Options:
No specified subscales but the checklist records child progress in six developmental areas: Cognitive, Language, Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Social-Emotional, and Self-Help.
Scoring:

Behaviors are scored as “present,” “not present,” “emerging,” “atypical/dysfunctional,” or “not applicable.” HELP Strands or HELP Checklist can be used to record outcomes and track progress. Because it divides each domain into strands, HELP Strands is recommended for children with disabilities or more uneven development within a domain. Most of the scoring is done during the assessment. Scoring is available by print/manual basis and software/database.

Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:
Reliability: None reported. Validity: Face and content validity tests were used to select and group the skills. The skills were selected from growth-and-development scales and standardized tests. An interdisciplinary team of pediatric therapists grouped the skills into strands and sequentially ordered them by age. No tests of concurrent or predictive validity reported.


#25 Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory
Introduction
Title:
Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory
Author:
Caldwell, B., & Bradley, R.
Date:
1984
Domain:
Child Development, Parenting Skills, Child and Family Health, Family Relationships.
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Observational screening tool completed by home visitor.
Uses of Information:
Measure the stimulation potential of a child’s early developmental environment. Developed as a substitute for reliance on social class or socioeconomic status as indicators of the adequacy of a child’s home environment.
Environment:
Home environment
Description:

The HOME Inventory attempts direct, relatively standardized measurement of environmental and interaction factors believed to be associated with adequate child welfare services The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory (Caldwell & Bradley, 1984) is designed to measure the quality and quantity of stimulation and support available to a child in the home environment. The focus is on the child in the environment and the child as a recipient of inputs from objects, events, and transactions occurring in connection with the family surroundings.

The initial version of the Inventory is called the Infant/Toddler (IT) HOME. It is designed for use during infancy (birth to age 3). It is composed of 45 items clustered into 6 subscales: 1) Parental Responsively, 2) Acceptance of Child, 3) Organization of the Environment, 4) Learning Materials, 5) Parental Involvement, and 6) Variety in Experience.

Three more versions of the Inventory have been developed since that time:

The Early Childhood (EC) HOME is designed for use between 3 and 6 years of age. It contains 55 items clustered into 8 subscales: 1) Learning Materials, 2) Language Stimulation, 3) Physical Environment, 4) Parental Responsively, 5) Learning Stimulation, 6) Modeling of Social Maturity, 7) Variety in Experience, and 8) Acceptance of Child.

The Middle Childhood (MC) HOME is designed for use between 6 and 10 years. It contains 59 items clustered into 8 subscales: 1) Parental Responsively, 2) Physical Environment, 3) Learning Materials, 4) Active Stimulation, 5) Encouraging Maturity, 6) Emotional Climate, 7) Parental Involvement, and 8) Family Participation.

The Early Adolescent (EA) HOME is designed for use from ages 10 to 15. It contains 60 items clustered into 7 subscales: 1) Physical Environment, 2) Learning Materials, 3) Modeling, 4) Instructional Activities, 5) Regulatory Activities, 6) Variety of Experience, and 7) Acceptance & Responsively.
References:
Bradley (1982), Bradley (1994), Bradley & Caldwell (1976), Bradley & Caldwell (1979)
Cost:
Comprehensive Manual: $50
Standard Manual: $40
Child Care HOME Manual: $30
Infant Toddler Forms: $15 per pad
Early Childhood Forms: $25 per package of 50 forms
Middle and Early Adolescent Forms: $12.50 per package of 25 forms
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes, manual can be ordered through the Distribution Center.
Contact Information:

Lorraine Coulson HOME INVENTORY LLC, Distribution Center
2627 Winsor Drive
Eau Claire, WI 54703
Tel : 715.835.4393, Email: lrcoulson@ualr.edu
Web: http://www.ualr.edu/~crtldept/home3.html

Utility
Instructions:
The HOME inventory is to be completed by a person who goes to the home when the child is awake and can be observed interacting with the mother or primary caretaker. The authors state that “in order to cover certain important transactions not likely to occur during the visit, it was necessary to base about one-third of the items upon parental report.” The authors also recommend limiting measurement to one child at a time. The target child must be present and awake so that he or she “can be observed in his or her normal routine for that day…no assumption is made that the presence of another person in this home will not in some way distort the parent-child interaction.”
Administrator:
The HOME Inventory is designed to be a measure of the stimulation potential of a child’s home environment and a valid measure of a child's development completed by a person who goes to the home when the child is awake and can be observed interacting with the mother or primary caretaker. The authors state that “in order to cover certain important transactions not likely to occur during the visit, it is suggested that about one-third of the items be based on parent/guardian report. The authors recommend limiting measurement to one child in the family at a time.
Qualification:
Not specified
Training Required:

Only experienced interviewers are able to handle the rather complex dual tasks of semi structured questioning and observation. Social workers at social services agencies should find it feasible since they could base it on multiple visits to a family, if need be, and may have other sources of information as well.

The authors avoid giving standardized interview questions, but do give guidelines and examples of probes for questioning. This material would require some study and bears out the authors’ requirement of “good interviews” to administer the HOME.
Administration Time:
Approximately one hour for the entire procedure
Respondents:
Parents of young children, observer rated.
Scales/Item Options:

There are six subscales of the Birth to Three version (45 items total). Examples are below:

  1. Emotional and Verbal Responsitiy of Mother (11 items): Mother spontaneously vocalizes to child at least twice during visit (exclude scolding).
  2. Avoidance of Restriction and Punishment (8 items): Mother does not shout at child during visit.
  3. Organization of Physical and Temporal Environment (6 items): When Mother is away, care is provided by one of three regular substitutes.

There are eight subscales of the Preschool version (55 items total). Examples are below:

  1. Stimulation Through Toys, Games, and Reading Materials (11 items): Toys of game facilitating learning numbers (blocks with numbers, books about numbers, games with numbers, etc.)
  2. Language Stimulation (7 items): Parent teaches child some simple manners–to say “Please,” “Thank you,” “I’m sorry.”
  3. Physical Environment Safe, Clean, and Conducive to Development (7 items): There is at least 100 square feet of living space per person in the home.
Scoring:

Information needed to score the Inventory is obtained during a 45 to 90 minute home visit done during a time when the target child and the child's primary caregiver are present and awake. Other family members, and even guests, can be present, but their presence is not necessary. The procedure is a low-key, semi-structured observation and interview done so as to minimize intrusiveness and allow family members to act normally. Throughout the course of the visit observations of parent/child interaction and discussions with the parent about objects, events, and transactions that occur are probed and interpreted from the child's point of view. The intent is to understand the child's opportunities and experiences; in essence, to understand what life is like for the particular child in the child's most intimate surroundings.

Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:

Reliability: The reliability for the Birth to Three HOME came from a sample of 174 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse families residing in Little Rock, AK. Internal consistency (KR-20 coefficient) was .89 for the total HOME and averaged .70 for the 6 subscales. HOME data were available for children in 91 families when the children were 6, 12, and 24 months. Intraclass correlations, computed as a measure of stability for total HOME scores, were .57 for 6 versus 12 months and .76 for 12 versus 24 months. Reliability results for the Preschool HOME, using a previous 80-item version completed with 238 families, are similar to those summarized for the Birth to 3 HOME.

Validity: The HOME Inventory is intended to be a more valid measure of a child’s developmental environment than family socioeconomic status only. Nevertheless, the two measures should be related to some extent. The HOME subscales for both versions correlate moderately (.3-.5) with such socioeconomic status measures as parents’ education and occupation, father’s presence, and home crowding. The HOME Inventory, particularly the Birth to Three version, has been extensively used in studies of the cognitive development of children.


#27 Home Safety Council Checklist
Introduction
Title:
Home Safety Council Checklist
Author:
Home Safety Council
Date:
2005
Domain:
Child and Family Health, Child Development, Parenting Skills
Standardized:
yes
Instrument Type(s):
Checklist
Uses of Information:
May be used to assess the safety of the home and to identify actions to be taken to improve home safety.
Environment:
Home, Parenting class
Description:
The Home Safety Council website enables the user to develop a home safety checklist that is most relevant to his or her living situation. It offers an array of checklist items grouped by areas in the home such as kitchen, backyard, bathroom, etc. The checklist is designed to make the home environment safer by preventing accidents.
References:
www.homesafetycouncil.org/resource_center/resourcecenter.aspx
Cost:
Can be downloaded from the HSC website (www.homesafetycouncil.org/resource_center/resourcecenter.aspx)
Availability of Test Manual:
N/A
Contact Information:

Home Safety Council
Web: http://www.homesafetycouncil.org/resource_center/resourcecenter.aspx

Utility
Instructions:
Paper and pencil
Administrator:
Parent report, family support worker, home visitor
Qualification:
None
Training Required:
No
Administration Time:
Varies according to the checklist items selected for use.
Respondents:
Adults
Scales/Item Options:

Backyard, bathroom, child, electrical, fire, home security, kitchen safety, poison prevention, safe steps, water safety, play-set safety.

Checklist examples:

Have you locked medicines, cosmetics and cleaning supplies in a secure cabinet?

Do you practice “touch supervision” – keeping children within an arm’s reach – around any standing water that could pose a drowning danger?
Scoring:

Paper and pencil check-list

Languages:
English and Spanish
Psychometric Properties:
N/A


#28 Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory (KIDI)
Introduction
Title:
Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory (KIDI)
Author:
MacPhee, D.
Date:
1981
Domain:
Parenting Skills, Child Development, Family Relationships
Standardized:
No
Instrument Type(s):
Parent Report on Knowledge of Child Development
Uses of Information:
May be used as an indicator or a diagnostic tool for high-risk parents and also to evaluate parent education programs.
Environment:
Not specified
Description:
The theoretical base for the KIDI was the theory that parental knowledge of infant development can influence parental behavior and child rearing practices. The KIDI is a 75-item instrument that was designed to obtain comprehensive information on parents’ factual knowledge of parental practices, child developmental processes, and infant norms of behavior. The KIDI is designed to be easily accessible to persons with limited education and to be culturally neutral. The KIDI Scale is accompanied by a 17-item questionnaire (the Catalog of Previous Experience, or COPE) assessing previous experience with infants to correlate with the knowledge level assessed by KIDI.
References:
MacPhee (1981)
Cost:
$14.00 As of January 1998, the cost was $11, plus $3 shipping and handling to order this measure from the Educational Testing Service.
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. The manual contains background information on the development of the KIDI, reliabilities, validity information, and scoring instructions.
Contact Information:

 

Unpublished manuscript available from:
Educational Testing Service
Tel: 609.734.5689
Web: www.ets.org

David MacPhee
Department of Human Development & Family Studies
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523
Utility
Instructions:
Paper and pencil instrument
Administrator:
Self-administered by parents
Qualification:
An individual with a seventh-grade reading level can complete the instrument.
Training Required:
Not specified
Administration Time:
20 minutes
Respondents:
Parents of infants and young children
Scales/Item Options:

The KIDI does not contain subscales but if subscale scoring is desired, it can be grouped into four nonexclusive general categories (derived from a priori definitions not statistical methods) to obtain more specific information on a person’s (1) knowledge on infant norms and milestones, (2) principles of infant development, (3) parenting, and (4)health and safety.

KIDI items are in agree/disagree format. The accompanying 17-item questionnaire (the Catalog of Previous Experience or COPE) mostly includes multiple-choice items but also a few scaled items.
Scoring:

Scored by someone with basic clerical skills in 20 minutes. Each of the KIDI items is scored as right (+1), wrong (-1), or not sure (0) according to an answer key that is provided. Using formulas provided in the manual, three summary scores are then calculated: an attempted score (percent of items attempted, a measure of confidence), an accuracy score (percent correct of the attempted answers), and a total correct score (percent correct of all the KIDI items). If the user wishes, subscale scores can be calculated for the four general categories: (1) norms and milestone, (2) principles, (3) parenting, and (4) health and safety.

Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:

Reliability: Internal consistency reliability alphas (Cronbach’s alpha) were .67 and .55 for college students at pretest and posttest, respectively: .82 for parents; and .50 for professionals. Test-retest reliability for parents (2-week interval) and the correlation coefficients were .92 for the total score, .80 for attempted, and .91 for accuracy. For college students (4-month interval), the coefficients were .65 for the attempted and .47 for accuracy.

Validity: For construct validity, the manual reports the results of the initial validity studies conducted by the author. The results suggested that persons with more experience with or knowledge about infants were more confident in responding to the KIDI. However, persons with formal knowledge were more accurate in their responses than persons with informal knowledge. With regard to content validity, the author conducted an extensive review of the relevant literature and the instrument has been reviewed by parents, pediatricians, and persons holding a Ph.D. in child psychology. On predictive validity, in another study, the author found parents of developmentally delayed children had significantly lower KIDI attempted and accuracy scores than parents of children with normal development.


#29 Marital Adjustment Scale (MAT)
Introduction
Title:
Marital Adjustment Scale (MAT)
Author:
Locke, Wallace
Date:
1959
Domain:
Family Relationships
Standardized:
Not specified
Instrument Type(s):
Survey, marital test
Uses of Information:
To assess marital happiness and marital satisfaction
Environment:
Home, office, classroom
Description:
This survey is used to measure marital adjustment. Although developed in 1959, it remains a widely-used tool for evaluating marital relationships.
References:

Freeston & Plechaty (1997), Locke & Wallace (1959)

Cost:
No cost. Full questionnaire can be found on this website: http://www.familynow1.com/reviews/lockewallace.htm
Availability of Test Manual:
Instructions for use in Corcoran, K. & Fischer, J. (1987). Measures for clinical practice: A sourcebook. New York: Free Pr.
Contact Information:

Full text in Corcoran, K., & Fischer, J. (1987). Measures for clinical practice: A sourcebook. New York: Free Pr. [133 full text instruments]
UTA location and call number: Central Library: Books BF176 .C66 1987 

Utility
Instructions:
Not available
Administrator:
Therapist, counselor
Qualification:
None specified
Training Required:
No
Administration Time:
10 minutes
Respondents:

Adults

Scales/Item Options:

Respondents are asked to respond to questions related to their marriage.

Sample items:


When disagreements arise, they usually result in:
(a) husband giving in  (b) wife giving in  (c) agreement by mutual give and take

 

Do you and your mate engage in outside interests together?
(a) All of them  (b) some of them  (c) very few of them (d) none of them

Scoring:

Not available

Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:
Reliability: Internal construct was estimated using the Spearman-Brown formula and was very good with a correlation of .90. The instrument is internally consistent and discriminates reliably between distressed and non-distressed couples.


#30 Maternal Developmental Expectations & Childrearing Attitudes Scale (MDECAS)
Introduction
Title:
Maternal Developmental Expectations & Childrearing Attitudes Scale (MDECAS)
Author:
Field, T.
Date:
1980
Domain:
Child Development, Child and Family Health, Parenting Skills
Program Type:
Parent Education; Home Visiting; Child Health and Well-being; Early Childhood
Standardized:
No
Instrument Type(s):
Parent report
Uses of Information:
To evaluate the degree to which maternal expectations are realistic and child-rearing attitudes are nonpunitive.
Environment:
Not specified
Description:
MDECAS is an assessment of the mother’s knowledge of the average age that developmental milestones are achieved, including smiling, crawling, walking, and talking, as well as her attitudes toward child rearing, including feeding, early stimulation, teaching, and disciplinary practices.
References:
Field, Widmayer, & Ignatoff (1980)
Cost:
No cost
Availability of Test Manual:
No
Contact Information:

Tiffany Field

Mailman Center for Child Development

University of Miami School of Medicine
P.O. Box 016820, Miami FL, 33101
Located At: Mailman Center for Child Development
1601 NW 12th Ave., 7th Floor, Suite 7037
Tel: 305.243.6781, Fax: 305.243.6488
Email: tfield@med.miami.edu
Web: http://www.miami.edu/touch-research/
Utility
Instructions:
Paper and pencil instrument
Administrator:
Not specified
Qualification:
Not specified
Training Required:
Required training hours not specified
Administration Time:
Not specified
Respondents:
Parents
Scales/Item Options:

Open-ended item format for Developmental Milestones and multiple-choice item format for Child-Rearing Attitudes. Examples of the types of multiple-choice questions on the MDECAS are: “How much crying can you expect from your baby when s/he is fed and dry?” “If you wanted to stop your baby from crying when s/he seems to be crying for no reason, what would you do?” “The best way to keep your baby away from breakable things is to…”

Scoring:

For Developmental Milestones, 1 point per item is given for estimate within 2 months of expected age for a total possible score of 8. For Child-Rearing Attitudes, noncircled responses are considered optimal for a total possible optimal score of 13.

Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:

None reported



#32 NCAST-AVENUW Parent-Child Interaction Program Teaching Scale (NCATS)
Introduction
Title:
NCAST-AVENUW Parent-Child Interaction Program Teaching Scale (NCATS)
Author:
NCAST ( Dr. Kathryn Barnard, University of Washington)
Date:
1995
Domain:
Child and Family Health; Formal/Informal Sources of Support and Involvement.
Program Type:
Parent/infant/child mental health, Parent Education, Home Visiting,
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Observation of parent/child interaction
Uses of Information:
The NCAST-AVENUW Parent Child Interaction Teaching scale (NCATS) is used to assess the quality of the caregiver-child dyadic interaction for children from birth to 3 years of age. The teaching scale identifies strengths and weaknesses in the caregiver-child interaction. The results can be used to build the caregiver’s skills to facilitate the development of the caregiver-child relationship and promote secure attachment.
A feeding scale is also available that measures interactions between parents and infants under 1 year.
Environment:
Home visiting programs or clinical setting
Description:
The Teaching Manual provides step-by-step instructions on how to interpret scores using population norms. Tables that compare NCATS scores to the norms are provided. Training is required.
References:

Summer & Spietz (1995)

Cost:
Teaching set (includes teaching manual, scale and, and teaching kit): $145
Availability of Test Manual:

Through NCAST-AVENUW and confirmation of enrollment in class with a certified instructor.

 

Interpretability: The Teaching Manual provides step-by-step instructions on how to interpret scores using population norms. Tables that compare NCATS scores to the norms are provided.
Contact Information:

NCAST-AVENUW
Tel: 206.543.8528
Web: www.ncast.org

Utility
Instructions:
Score sheets, pen, standardized Teaching Kit.
Administrator:
Administered by a certified NCAST user.
Qualification:
Professional trained/NCAST certified
Training Required:

To learn essential concepts about infant and toddler cues, states, behaviors, etc , those planning on becoming trained and certified in the Teaching Scale are strongly recommended to view NCAST’s “Keys to Caregiving” video series, preferably with a facilitator in a group setting prior to enrolling in a PCI Class. The fee for training in the NCATS varies. Each instructor is an independent practitioner. The NCAST-AVENUW office will refer you to an independent, certified instructor near your community.

Administration Time:
Usually administered in 1 to 5 minutes. Ease of Administration and Scoring: 3 (administered and scored by a highly trained individual)
Respondents:
Service providers observing young children (between birth and 3 years of age) & parents.
Scales/Item Options:

The 73-item teaching scale is organized into six subscales, four of which assess the caregiver’s behavior and two the child’s. The four caregiver subscales assess the caregiver’s sensitivity to cues, response to the child’s distress, fostering of social-emotional growth, and fostering of cognitive growth. The two child subscales assess the clarity of the child’s cues and responsiveness to the caregiver.

Scoring:

During the teaching session, the observer goes through the 73-item scale and marks “yes” or “no” for each item depending upon whether or not the behavior was observed. The teaching manual provides the user with step-by-step scoring instructions. The user must calculate the totals for each subscale and the total score. The scores are compared to a table provided in the manual to determine whether the score falls under the 10 percentile cutoff score.

Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:

(1) Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha): ranged from .52 to .80 on the caregiver subscales, .50 on the child’s clarity of cues, and .78 on the child’s responsiveness to parent subscales. The alphas for the total caregiver and child subscales were .87 and .81, respectively. (2) Test-retest reliability (with a 3- to 4-month interval between tests): .85 on the total parent score and .55 on the total infant score.

Validity: (1) Concurrent validity: NCATS (Teaching Scale) caregiver scores were tested for concurrent validity against the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The correlations of the total NCATS scores with the total HOME score among children ages 1 to 36 months, in three age groups, ranged from .41 to .44. The correlation of the total NCATS score with the Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI) and Bayley Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) were .28 and .34, respectively. In both cases, the caregiver scales, especially the social-emotional and cognitive growth subscales, were more strongly correlated with the HOME and Bayley. (2) Predictive validity: A test for predictive validity reported correlations of .23 and .34, respectively between NCATS total scores taken at 3 and 10 months and MDI scores, both statistically significant. The subscale correlations ranged from –.01 to .37. Correlations between the NCATS caregiver and total scores at 24 months with the Bayley MDI (at 24 months), Preschool Language (at 36 months), and WPPSI IQ (at 60 months) were stronger and more consistent than the correlations between the cognitive measures and NCATS scores at 12 months.

 



#33 Parenting Stress Index, 3rd Ed. (PSI)
Introduction
Title:
Parenting Stress Index, 3rd Ed. (PSI)
Author:
Abidin, R. R.
Date:
1995
Domain:
Child and Family Health, Parenting Skills
Program Type:
Parenting education, home visiting, parent/family support, fatherhood, early childhood
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Parent self-report, 120 item
Uses of Information:

Identify parent-child problem areas

* Intervention and treatment planning in high-stress areas

* The assessment of child-abuse risk

* Forensic evaluation for child custody
Environment:
Home, office, church, school
Description:
The PSI is well suited for use in primary health-care and pediatric practices, as well as in other settings and programs that serve at-risk children and families or that provide early childhood educational and developmental experiences. The PSI is designed for the early identification of parenting and family characteristics that fail to promote normal development and functioning in children, children with behavioral and emotional problems, and parents who are at-risk for dysfunctional parenting. It can be used with parents of children as young as 1 month.
References:

Abidin (1995)

Cost:

PSI introductory Kit: $155.00

PSI Manual: $56.00

PSI reusable booklets (pkg. 10): $49.00

PSI hand-scorable answer sheets (pkg. 25): $57.00

(pkg. 100): $209.00
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. The Manual has 118 pages of information, including reference group profiles and case illustrations, Hispanic norms, and expanded norms by age. A fifth-grade reading level is required.
Contact Information:

Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
Tel: 800.331.8378
Fax: 800.727.9329
Web: www3.parinc.com

Utility
Instructions:
Paper and pencil, computer software
Administrator:
Home visitor, teacher, family support worker
Qualification:
A 4-year degree in psychology (psychometrist, counselor [psychometrics] or closely related health care professional) from an accredited university and relevant graduate level coursework in Tests and Measurements, under supervision.
Training Required:
No
Administration Time:
20-30 minutes
Respondents:
Parents of children 12 years and younger
Scales/Item Options:

Six subscales: distractability, hyperactivity, adaptability, reinforces parent, demandingness, mood, and acceptability. The parent personality and situational variables consist of seven subscales: competence, isolation, attachment, health, role restriction, and depressing spouse.

It is also available in a short form, The Parenting Stress Index - Short Form. The PSI-SF consists of 36 items derived from the PSI which comprise three scales: Parental Distress, Difficult Child Characteristics, and Dysfunctional Parent-Child Interaction.

Scoring:

Hand-scoring, computer

Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:

The PSI has been empirically validated to predict observed parenting behavior and children's current and future behavioral and emotional adjustment, not only in a variety of U.S. populations but also in a variety of international populations. The transcultural research has involved populations as diverse as Chinese, Portuguese, French Canadian, Italian, and Korean. These studies demonstrated comparable statistical characteristics to those reported in the PSI Manual, suggesting that the PSI is a robust diagnostic measure that maintains its validity with diverse non-English-speaking cultures. This ability to effectively survive translation and demonstrate its usefulness as a diagnostic tool with non-English-speaking populations suggests that it is likely to maintain its validity with a variety of different U.S. populations.



#34 Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Third Edition (PPVT-III)
Introduction
Title:
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Third Edition (PPVT-III)
Author:
Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M.
Date:
1997
Domain:
Child Development
Program Type:
Early Childhood; Child Health and Well-being; Job Readiness & Training; Parent Education; Home Visiting
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Direct child/adult assessment
Uses of Information:
PPVT-III can be used to measure receptive vocabulary. PPVT-III can screen for verbal ability, giftedness, and mental retardation in persons for whom English is the spoken language in the home, community, and school; it can measure English language proficiency for persons for whom English is a second language. Because it requires no reading or writing and is easy to administer, PPVT-III is useful in testing preschool children and is fair to persons with written-language problems and disabilities such as autism, withdrawn personalities, psychotic symptoms, severe cerebral palsy, and moderate visual disabilities.
Environment:
School, clinical, vocational, research
Description:
The PPVT-III is the third edition of a highly successful vocabulary test that has been in use since 1959. It is used for screening special students, job candidates, and to assess vocabulary of non-English-speaking students, ranging in age from 2 through 90+ years. The PPVT-III tests for listening comprehension of standard English. It has two parallel forms, Forms IIIA and IIIB, each with 4 training items (for administering the test) and 204 test items grouped into 17 sets of 12 items arranged in order of increasing difficulty. In the test, the examiner orally presents a stimulus word with a set of pictures and the test taker is asked to select the picture that best represents the word’s meaning. The examiner administers the item sets until the child’s “basal” and “ceiling” sets are found, a process that usually takes five item sets. The basal set is the item set in which the child makes one or no errors and the ceiling set is the item set in which the child makes eight or more errors.
References:

Dunn & Dunn (1997)

Cost:
PPVT-III Form IIIA and IIIB Test Kits: $299.99 (includes picture plates, 2 norms booklets, 2 examiner’s manuals, and 1 package (25) of performance records for each form)
PPVT-III Form IIIA and IIIB Test Kit with ASSIST: $398.99
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. The test manual includes information on uses, administration and scoring; test construction, standardization and norms development; and reliability and validity and other technical data. The examiners’ manual describes various modifications that can be made in administering the test to accommodate various disabilities.
Contact Information:

American Guidance Services Publishing
Tel: 800.328.2560
Web: www.agsnet.com

Utility
Instructions:
Print/manual
Administrator:
Educators, counselors, psychologists, and clinicians
Qualification:
Level B Test User Qualification: User has completed graduate training in measurement, guidance, individual psychological assessment, or special appraisal methods appropriate for a particular test.
Training Required:
No
Training Notes:
Although formal training in psychometrics is not required, the examiners should be thoroughly familiar with the test materials and well-trained in administering and scoring the test.
Administration Time:
It takes approximately 12 minutes to administer 5 sets.
Respondents:

Only persons with formal training in psychological testing and statistics should interpret the results of the PPVT-III.

Scales/Item Options:

Items represent 20 content categories (verbs [actions], adjectives, and nouns). Pictures are presented in a multiple-choice format of four pictures per item. The examiner presents a verbal stimulus from the Performance Record while the examinee looks at a plate of four numbered black-and-white drawings. The examinee must select by pointing to or saying the number of the picture that best depicts the verbal stimulus. A spoken response is not required.

Scoring:
Hand-scoring: The examiner enters the number associated with the picture selected by the examinee on the performance record form and draws a “slash” through the letter “E” under the error column for each error. The raw score is obtained by subtracting the total number of errors above the examinee’s basal set from the number associated with the most difficult item answered correctly in the examinee’s ceiling set. Using several tables, raw scores can be converted into different types of age-adjusted standardized scores. One table converts the raw score into a standard score. A second table converts the standard score into percentile rank, normal curve equivalent, and stanine. Finally, a third table converts the examinee’s raw score into the age equivalent performance. A scoring software program is available for purchase. The software scores the test and converts the raw scores into standard scores, percentiles, stanines, normal curve equivalents, and age equivalents.
Languages:

English and Spanish

Psychometric Properties:

Reliability: Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) was .93 for Form IIIA for both ages 2 years 6 months and 3 years. For Form IIIB, the alphas were .93 and .92, respectively. Test-retest reliability (with an approximately 1-month interval between tests) correlation coefficients for ages 2 years, 6 months through 5 years, 11 months were .92 for Form IIIA and .91 for Form IIIB.

Validity: For concurrent validity, tests that compared PPVT-III with intelligence tests were conducted and the results were corrected for norm group variability. Corrected correlation coefficients ranged from .82 to .92 with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Third Edition verbal, performance, and full scale IQ scales; .76 to .91 with the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test crystallized, fluid, and composite IQ tests; .62 to .82 with the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test vocabulary, matrices, and composite tests; and .63 to .83 with the Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS) listening comprehension, oral expression, and composite scales. However, all of these tests were performed on persons older than 3 (i.e., validity information not available on children from 0-3). No information available on predictive validity.


#35 Preschool Language Scale (PLS-3)
Introduction
Title:
Preschool Language Scale (PLS-3)
Author:
Zimmerman, I. L., Steiner, V. G., & Pond, R. E.
Date:
1992
Domain:
Child Development
Program Type:
Child Health and Well-being, Infant/Child Mental Health, Child Development, Parenting Education
Standardized:
Yes. Sample was based on the 1980 Census of Population (1986 update) stratified on the basis of parent education level, geographic region, and race/ethnicity. The standardization study, which began after June 1991, excluded children with language disorders, children who were more than a month premature, and children who experienced difficulties at birth.
Instrument Type(s):
Direct assessment of pre-school language skills
Uses of Information:
The PLS-3 can be used to determine whether or not a child has a language disorder and, if so, whether the source of the disorder is auditory, expressive, or an overall problem. The standard score and percentile ranks obtained can also help determine the severity of the disorder and identify areas for in-depth testing before defining therapy goals.
Environment:
Clinical environment
Description:
The Preschool Language Scale (PLS-3) provides clinicians with a diagnostic instrument to evaluate language development. The PLS-3 can be used to test receptive and expressive language skills with children from 2 weeks through 6 years of age. It also assesses behaviors considered to be language precursors. The Preschool Language Scale includes eight receptive/expressive language tasks for each 6-month interval for ages birth through 4 years, 11 months and eight receptive/expressive tasks for each 12-month interval for ages 5 and 6 years.
References:
Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond (1992)
Cost:
$185 (includes Examiner’s Manual, Picture Manual, and 12 Record Forms)
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. The Examiner’s Guide provides detailed information on interpretation of scores. The PLS-3 includes scoring interpretation guidelines as they relate to determining the severity of the disorder and the need for intervention. Using the task analyses (the PLS-3 Checklist and Profile), a clinician can evaluate the child’s strengths, emerging skills, and deficits. The Checklist groups’ PLS-3 tasks by age; the Profile group tasks by the type of language skill tested.
Contact Information:

The Psychological Corporation
Tel: 800.872.1726
Web: www.psychcorp.com

Utility
Instructions:
Unspecified
Administrator:
Clinician, child specialist
Qualification:
Must have knowledge of test administration and score interpretation as well as know the instrument and adhere to administration procedures.
Training Required:
See “Qualification” column; otherwise unspecified
Administration Time:
Requires 15 to 30 minutes to administer the PLS-3 for children under 1 year and 30 to 40 minutes for children 12 months to 3 years, 11 months.
Respondents:
Clinician or child specialist observing child
Scales:

The PLS-3 contains two standardized subscales and three supplemental measures (these measures are not incorporated into the test scores, but they are optional and provide additional information). The standardized subscales are Auditory Comprehension (focusing on attention abilities) and Expressive Communication (focusing on social communication and vocal development). The supplemental measures include the Articulation Screener, Language Sample Checklist (LSC), and Family Information and Suggestions Form (FISF). The LSC evaluates the child’s language skills in conversational speech. The FISF, which is completed by the parents, is for information on the child’s communication behavior at home and the needs of the family and areas that parents would like to see addressed.

Item Options/Scoring:

In most cases, response items are scored by entering a check for each correct response, a minus for each incorrect response, and an “NR” if the child does not respond. A few items are open-ended, requiring a written response. A score graph in the Record Form enables the clinician to visually compare a child’s PLS-3 Auditory Comprehension and Expressive Communication scores. PLS-3 provides age-based standard scores, percentile ranks, and age equivalents for the Auditory Comprehension, Expressive Communication, and Total Language scores.

Languages:
English and Spanish
Psychometric Properties:

Reliability: (1) Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha): For children ages birth to 2 years, 11 months, alphas ranged from .47 to .86 for Auditory Comprehension, from .68 to .86 for Expressive Communication, and from .74 to .92 for the Total Language Score. (2) Test-retest reliability: no information available. (3) Interrater reliability: .98 (based on observations of children older than age 3).

Validity: (1) Concurrent validity: For children older than 3, the correlations with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Revised (CELF-R) were .69 for Auditory Comprehension, .75 for Expressive Communication, and .82 for Total Language. Results of other concurrent validity studies can be obtained by the publisher. (2) Predictive validity: no information available.

 



#36 Roberts Apperception Test for Children
Introduction
Title:

Roberts Apperception Test for Children

Author:
Roberts, G. E.
Date:
2005
Domain:
Child and Family Health, Family Relationships, Child Development
Program Type:
Parent Education; Home Visiting; Early Childhood; Youth Development; Youth Development, Parent infant/child mental health
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Direct child assessment
Uses of Information:
The Roberts-2 is effective with children who are entering counseling or therapy. It is also useful in measuring change over the course of treatment and it is useful in assessing developmental change and situational crises in normal children.
Environment:
Clinical or research setting
Description:
The Roberts Apperception Test for Children Second Edition uses storytelling to evaluate children’s social perception. The test focuses on children’s social understanding as expressed in the test narratives. It assesses two independent dimensions: adaptive social perception and the presence of maladaptive or atypical social perception. The scales on the Roberts-2 were updated for easier scoring and interpretation, reflecting developmental and clinical concerns.
References:

Not specified

Cost:
$140.00 KIT: Includes 1 Set of Test Pictures Featuring White Children and Adolescents, 25 Record Forms, 1 Manual.
$59.95: Test Pictures, White Children and Adolescents
$59.95: Test Pictures, Black Children and Adolescents
$59.95: Test Pictures, Hispanic Children and Adolescents
$34.50: Record Forms (pkgs. of 25). Quantity price break available.
$49.95: Manual
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes
Contact Information:

Western Psychological Services
12031 Wilshire Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90025-1251

Tel: 800.648.8857 or 310.478.7838

Web: www.wpspublish.com

 

Utility
Instructions:
The Roberts Apperception Test for Children uses storytelling to evaluate children’s social perception. Children or adolescents are asked to tell a story in response to each of 16 Test Pictures. After recording the stories, the clinician scores responses, according to objective criteria, for the presence or absence of specific characteristics.
Administrator:
Administered by a clinician
Qualification:
A degree from an accredited 4-year college or university in Psychology, Counseling, or a closely related field PLUS satisfactory completion of coursework in Test Interpretation, Psychometrics and Measurement Theory, Educational Statistics, or a closely related area; OR license or certification from an agency that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests.
Training Required:
Not specified
Administration Time:
20-45 minutes
Respondents:
6-18 years
Scales/Item Options:

The Roberts-2 asks the child or adolescent to tell a story in response to each of 16 Test Pictures. After recording the stories, the clinician scores responses, according to objective criteria, for the presence or absence of specific characteristics.

Scoring:
Manual scoring
Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:

Available in the manual.



#37 The Child Well-Being Scales
Introduction
Title:
The Child Well-Being Scales
Author:
Magura, S. & Moses, B. S.
Date:
1986
Domain:
Child Development, Child and Family Health, Parenting Skills, Family Relationships
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Parent assessment completed by staff
Uses of Information:
Use for the evaluation of programs in child welfare services.
Environment:
Not specified
Description:
The Child Well-Being Scales were developed as an outcome measure for evaluating programs in child welfare services. They consist of 43 separate dimensions covering areas of parenting role performance, familial capacities, child role performance and child capacities.
References:

Depanfilis (2001); Doueck, Kelly, Koster, Lyons, & Witzky (1999); Doueck & Lyons (1999)

Cost:
$26.95
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes, order through CWLA
Contact Information:

To order scales: http://www.cwla.org/pubs/pubdetails.asp?PUBID=3062

Children's Bureau, Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) Publications 
P.O. Box 2019 
Annapolis Junction, MD 20797 
Tel: 800.407.6273, Fax: 301.206.9789
Web: www.cwla.org
www.familyassessmentform.com
Utility
Instructions:
Paper and pencil instrument
Administrator:
Service providers
Qualification:
Paraprofessional; B.A. Degree in Social Sciences, must be very familiar with the families being evaluated
Training Required:
Some training needed for customizing indicators, staff implementation, and data analysis
Administration Time:

Moderate 31-60 min.

Initial assessment: 60 min.; Follow-up or termination assessments: 30 min.
Respondents:
Parents of children
Scales/Item Options:

The child well-being scales consist of 43 scales covering four areas; parenting role performance, familial capacities, child role performance, child capacities.

Each scale has a brief descriptive title followed by between three and six levels or categories of performance on a variable. The extremes of these levels are given labels such as “Adequate” and “Severely Inadequate” or others appropriate to the content of the scale. Each level contains at least one and usually several descriptive illustrations of what is meant by the particular level of performance.

For example, levels in scale 12, Supervision of Younger Children (under 13), range from Adequate---Parent provides proper and timely supervision of children’s activities inside and outside of the home. Parent knows children’s whereabouts and activities, whom they are with and when they return. Definite limits are set on children’s activities to Severely Inadequate---The younger children in this family have been improperly supervised by the parent(s). As a result, one or more of the children has been injured, requiring medical treatment, or has been victimized (molested, etc.) (Magura & Moses, 1986, p. 120).
Scoring:

Neglect Seriousness scoring ranges from 0-100

Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:

A factor analysis based on 240 cases yielded a six-factor solution that explained 63% of variance. Alphas ranged from .71 to .90.  Inter-item reliability was derived with internal consistency alphas ranging from .69 to .93. Inter-rater reliability was 50% exact correspondence, 74% +/- a half step in rating, 89% +/- a full step in rating.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=1638906&dopt=Abstract


#39 The Family Support Program Outcome Survey
Introduction
Title:
The Family Support Program Outcome Survey
Author:
FRIENDS National Resource Center for CBCAP Programs
Date:
2004
Domain:
Formal/Informal Sources of Support and Involvement, Parenting, Child Development, Family Relationships, Child and Family Health
Program Type:
  • Parent education
  • Parent support groups
  • Home visiting
Standardized:
No
Instrument Type(s):
Parent survey using retrospective pretest format
Uses of Information:
Measures broad, generic outcomes of family support programs
Environment:
Parent self-report completed in either an in-home or program environment
Description:
The Family Support Program Outcome Survey is generic in nature and looks at broad outcomes that are likely shared across CBCAP programs. Parents rate changes that occurred as a result of receiving family support services. The survey solicits both quantitative and qualitative responses to items related to prevention factors, such as access to formal and informal support systems, parenting skills, advocacy, and ability to meet basic needs.

This tool comes with an instruction guide and database. A feature of the database is that it allows programs to enter data from additional survey items that they develop to measure outcomes specific to their programs.
References:

www.friendsnrc.org

Cost:
No cost, in the public domain
Availability of Test Manual:
Users' guidebook is available.
Contact Information:

FRIENDS National Resource for CBCAP Programs
Chapel Hill Training Outreach Project
800 Eastowne Drive, Suite 105
Chapel Hill, NC 27514
919.490.5577
Download survey, guidebook, and database at www.friendsnrc.org/outcome/resources.htm#survey.

Utility
Instructions:

Staff should go over the instructions for the survey, even if respondents are filling it out by themselves. Respondents should be instructed to answer questions 1-7 twice, once from the perspective of how they felt before entering the program and again from the perspective of how they feel now. Make sure respondents understand the anchors of the scale, in which "1" is a strong disagreement and "7" is a strong agreement.

Administrator:
Can be self-administered or administered in a face-to-face or telephone interview
Qualification:
None specified
Training Required:
Administrators are encouraged to review the guidebook and become familiar with the survey items and retrospective pretesting.
Administration Time:
5-10 minutes
Respondents:
Parent-consumers
Scales/Item Options:
All quantitative items are rated on a 1-7 scale.

Survey includes statements that are rated on a 1-7 scale, with 1 meaning "strongly disagree" and 7 "strongly agree."

Sample items:
  • "I have relationships with people who provide me with support when I need it."
  • "I know how to meet my family's needs with the money and resources I have."
  • "When I am worried about my child, I have someone to talk to."
  • "I know how to meet my family's needs with the money and resources I have."
Scoring:

A database can be downloaded from the Internet. It provides descriptive statistics on survey data entered.

Languages:
English only at present; translations are planned.
Psychometric Properties:

Under development, with psychometric properties being determined



#40 Measure of Family Well-Being
Introduction
Title:
Measure of Family Well-Being
Author:
University of Georgia Family and Consumer Sciences, adapted from the Institute for Family Support and Development of MICA, 1996
Date:
1999
Domain:
Parenting, Child Development, Child and Family Health, Family Relationships, Formal/Informal Sources of Support and Involvement
Instrument Type(s):

Survey scored on a 7-point Likert scale using a retrospective pretest format

Uses of Information:
Implementing this four-part set of tools is appropriate for measuring the effectiveness of family support programs. The tools assess 12 areas of family functioning by reviewing several "subareas" in each area, and then provide an overall rating for that area.

Areas covered by the scale include: parenting and family well-being, housing, community life, food and nutrition, health and health care, education and jobs, money, transportation, children's education, children's behavior, and child care. Each of these areas is of potential interest to a family support program.
Environment:
Home, classroom, or program offices
Description:
This scale is comprehensive, visually appealing, and easy to use. It guides readers through a step-by-step application of concepts related to outcome accountability and provides suggested tools for measuring progress. It does require a fairly detailed knowledge of the family system by the staff person making the ratings.

There are both a self-report and a staff report on each indicator of a family's well-being. These instruments may be time consuming for staff, but they are relatively simple to use. For programs having more in-depth relationships with participants, they may be very useful instruments.
References:
Peisher, Sewel, & Kirk, 2001; Peisher, Sewell, & Kirk, 2001
Cost:
Free, in the public domain
Availability of Test Manual:
Limited information on using the tool is included in the FRIENDS Guide to Outcome Accountability at www.friendsnrc.org
Contact Information:
FRIENDS National Resource Center for CBRS programs
800 Eastowne Drive, Suite 105
Chapel Hill, NC 27514
919.490.5577
www.friendsnrc.org
Utility
Instructions:
Instructions available on each form
Administrator:
Unspecified
Qualification:
Unspecified, but must be able to read and fill out the form
Training Required:
The staff administrator should be very familiar with the family prior to completing the sets of items intended for staff to complete.
Administration Time:
This is entirely dependent on the number of subsets that are being completed. Plan on 10 minutes per subset.
Respondents:
Parents and staff
Scales/Item Options:
Four sets of scaled instruments address and measure issues related to the following 12 subsets: Housing and Family Well-Being, Parenting and Family Well-Being, Community Life and Family Well-Being, Food and Nutrition and Family Well-Being, Health and Health Care and Family Well-Being, Education and Jobs and Family Well-Being, Money and Family Well-Being, Transportation and Family Well-Being, Children's Education and Family Well-Being, Family Relations and Family Well-Being, and Children's Behavior and Family Well-Being.

Two sets of instruments are to be filled out by the family member participating in the family support program. Two sets of instruments, labeled "educator version," are to be completed by the family support program staff person who is best able to evaluate this family. The items are rated on a Likert scale. Sample items include:
  • "Individuals show affection and notice feelings, such as anger, sorrow, or love."
  • "Children have good school attendance."
  • "We have enough money to meet basic family needs."
Scoring:

Unspecified

Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:
Unavailable


#41 Difficult Life Circumstances (DLC)
Introduction
Title:
Difficult Life Circumstances (DLC)
Author:
Johnson, S., Booth, C., Bee, H., & Barnard, K.
Date:
(Originally published) 1989
Domain:
Child and Family Health, Formal/Informal Sources of Support and Involvement
Standardized:
Not specified
Instrument Type(s):
28-item binary (yes/no) self-report scale
Uses of Information:
This tool examines the severity of life stresses and their impact on quality of parent-child interaction. Answers from the 28-item binary scale provide insight into the respondent's perception of difficult life circumstances facing him/her. The DLC scale is sensitive to personal environmental influences and how those influences impact the quality of parent-infant interaction. The tool is useful for public health and social work practitioners when taking in new clients and conducting progress monitoring over a span of months or years. Researchers employ the DLC during case studies and longitudinal studies and at all stages of intervention/treatment programs, especially pre- and post. A score of 6 is associated with less than optimal outcomes.
Environment:
Not specified, but flexible
Description:
Items on the DLC scale are derived from empirical, research-based data collected from high-risk families during pregnancy and early infancy. The DLC scale is sensitive to personal environmental influences; items do not assign blame. The tool assesses chronic problems and/or current/recent stressors that result from substance abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, finances, community support, and housing. Answers to all 28 items are not required to score.
References:
www.ncast.org
Additional articles available upon request.
Cost:
DLC Manual
DLCM (.5lb) $7.00
Pad of 100 DLC scale
DLC (English) (1.25lb) $18.00
DLCS (Spanish) (1.25) $18.00
Availability of Test Manual:
Ordering: telephone, email, or web
For mail or fax, a printable order form is available for download.

Payments: check, Visa/MasterCard
www.ncast.org/
Contact Information:

NCAST-AVENUW
206.543.8528
206.685.3284 (Fax)
ncast@u.washington.edu
www.ncast.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=page.contactUs

Utility
Instructions:
Available on DLC scale form and in manual
Administrator:
Parent self-report
Qualification:
Not specified, but must be able to fill in required information (name, date, etc.) and read items
Training Required:
None
Administration Time:
Not specified, but less than 10 minutes
Respondents:
High-risk families during pregnancy and early infancy
Scales/Item Options:
Responses for each question are either yes or no. Examples:
  • "Are you having regular arguments or conflicts with your present partner/steady boy/girlfriend?"
  • "Have you had any illnesses in the past year?"
  • "Do you have a problem with alcohol or drugs (prescription or street)?"
Scoring:
Scores range from 0 to 28. See manual for how to score and interpret scores.
Languages:
English and Spanish
Psychometric Properties:
The DLC scale is a component of NCAST Personal Environment Assessment scales and is designed to provide reliable information about the individual, family, and environment. Test-retest reliability falls within the range of r= 0.40-0.70. Adequate construct and concurrent validity is demonstrated. A high DLC score is associated with depression, negative physical symptoms, less support, and poor child outcomes across physical, cognitive, and emotional domains.


#42 Community Life Skills Scale (CLSS)
Introduction
Title:
Community Life Skills Scale (CLSS)
Author:
Mitchell, S., Bee, H., Booth, C., Spietz, A., Snyder, C., Moser, J., Johnson-Crowley, N., & Barnard, K.
Date:
1991
Domain:
Formal/Informal Sources of Support and Involvement, Parenting
Standardized:
Not specified
Instrument Type(s):
33-item binary (yes/no) scale
Uses of Information:
Researchers and practitioners employ the CLSS, a 33-item binary scale, to collect practical information about six categories that affect stress levels. Answers on the 33-item binary scale help to identify the impact of whether the respondent uses available community resources and help to identify his/her strengths and needs. The information obtained is useful for establishing a baseline, facilitating mutual goal setting, measuring the outcome of intervention on stress and family relations, and making changes in light of new data.
Environment:
Not specified, but flexible
Description:
The CLSS measures a parent's ability to increase overall quality of life and to reduce the levels of personal/familial stress endured. This is accomplished by implementing a 33-item binary scale revealing the status of a person's transportation, budgeting skills, support services, support involvement, interests/hobbies, and regularity/organization of routines in daily life. The CLSS can be administered as a self-report or can be used in an informal or formal interview. Ultimately, it will reveal what community resources the respondent currently uses and provide information on his/her current skills when it comes to negotiating for self and family in the community.
References:
Barnard, Hilsinger, Patteson, Snyder, Solchany, & Shangle, M., 1999; Booth, Mitchell, Barnard, & Spieker, 1989

Additional articles available upon request. www.ncast.org
Cost:
Community Life Skills Manual (.25lb)
English: $7.00

Community Life Skills Scales (1.25lbs)
English: $18.00 @ 100/pad
Spanish: $18.00 @ 100/pad
Availability of Materials
Ordering: telephone, email, or web. For mail or fax, a printable order form is available for download.

Payments: check, Visa/Mastercard
www.ncast.org
Contact Information:

NCAST-AVENUW
206.543.8528
206.685.3284 (Fax)
ncast@u.washington.edu
www.ncast.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=page.contactUs

Utility
Instructions:
The manual contains background materials, information on how to use the scale and interpret scores, and a standardized description of each item in the inventory. The CLSS contains instructions to complete the items as either a self-report or interview.
Administrator:
Staff interview or parent self-administered
Qualification:
Not specified, but must be able to fill in required information (name, date, etc.) and read items
Training Required:
None
Administration Time:
Unspecified
Respondents:
High-risk parents
Scales/Item Options:
Responses for each item are either yes or no. Examples:
  • Transportation: "Client has some form of regular, reliable transportation to work for his/her needs."
  • Budgeting: "Client has been able to pay bills (e.g., rent, utility) so that he/she is not bothered by collectors or threatened by service cut-offs (no more than one such incident in the past year.)"
  • Interest-Hobbies: "Client has some hobbies or recreational interests."
  • Support-Involvement: "Client has a close friend he/she visits at least once a week."
Scoring:
Scores range from 0 to 33. See manual for how to score and interpret scores.
Languages:
English and Spanish
Psychometric Properties:
The CLSS is a component of NCAST Personal Environment Assessment scales. It is designed to provide reliable information regarding an individual and his/her family and environment. Adequate construct and concurrent validity has been demonstrated. A high score on the CLSS is positively correlated with less education, less income, lower IQ, less social support, more depressive symptoms, and more difficult life circumstances.


#43 Network Survey Form
Introduction
Title:
Network Survey Form (NET)
Author:
Brandt, P.
Date:
2003
Domain:
Formal/Informal Sources of Support and Involvement
Standardized:
Not specified
Instrument Type(s):
Two-part survey
Uses of Information:
The NET survey provides insight into community resources available, accessible, and taken advantage of by families. Not only is this survey appropriate for measuring the resources during pre- and post-intervention/treatment of parents whose families are considered to be at risk, it can also serve as a training instrument. This is accomplished by helping individuals navigate among and utilize different and appropriate community and personal resources as a means for managing and reducing stressful events in their lives.
Environment:
Not specified, but flexible
Description:
This useful two-part survey lets the administrator look at the amount and quality of both the personal (family, friends, neighbors, coworkers) and professional (agencies, self-help groups, etc.) support available to the client. The Network Survey goes beyond simply gathering information about the type, amount, and quality of supportive people in one's network by including the degree of helpfulness, whether the relationship is reciprocal, and the amount of trouble the supportive person is to the client. (source: www.ncast.org/p-environment.asp)
References:
www.ncast.org/p-environment.asp
Cost:
Network Survey Manual (.25lb)
English: $7.00
Network Survey Form (1.25lbs)
English : $18.00 @ 100/pad
Availability of Test Manual:
Ordering: telephone, email, or web. For mail or fax, a printable order form is available for download.

Payments: check, Visa/Mastercard
www.ncast.org
Contact Information:

NCAST-AVENUW
206.543.8528
206.685.3284 (Fax)
ncast@u.washington.edu
www.ncast.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=page.contactUs

Utility
Instructions:
The manual contains background materials, as well as information on how to use the survey and how to interpret it. The NET form contains instructions on how to complete the items as either a self-report or interview.
Administrator:
Professional
Qualification:
Nurse, social worker, educator
Training Required:
None
Administration Time:
Not specified
Respondents:
Parents of infants and young children
Scales/Item Options:
For specific information, call 206.543.8528.
Scoring:

See manual

Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:
The CLSS is a component of NCAST Personal Environment Assessment scales. It is designed to provide reliable information pertaining to an individual and his/her family and environment. Specific reliability information about this survey is not available.


#44 Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)
Introduction
Title:
Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)
Author:
Cohen. S.
Date:
(Originally published) 1983
Domain:
Child and Family Health, Family Relationships
Standardized:
Not specified
Instrument Type(s):
Four-item self-report instrument with a 5-point scale:
(0 = never, 1 = almost never, 2 =sometimes, 3 = fairly often, 4 = very often.) The PSS is also available in a 10- and 14-item self-report instrument with the same five-point scale.
Uses of Information:
The 4-item version is appropriate for use in situations requiring a very brief measure of stress perceptions. It was previously employed when collecting perceived stress levels over the phone during follow-up interviews.

It is not a diagnostic instrument but is intended to make comparisons of subjects' perceived stress related to current, objective events. A higher degree and longer duration of self-perceived stress, indicated by a higher score, is considered a risk factor for a clinical psychiatric disorder
Environment:
Not specified, but flexible
Description:
The short version, PSS-4, is an economical and simple psychological instrument to administer, comprehend, and score. It measures the degree to which situations in one's life over the past month are appraised as stressful. Items were designed to detect how unpredictable, uncontrollable, and overloaded respondents find their lives. The PSS-4 poses general queries about relatively current levels of stress experienced. All items begin with the same phrase: "In the past month, how often have you felt??" Since the questions are of a general nature and are not directed at any particular subpopulation group, using this abbreviated version (or any version) with a diverse population is predicted to yield equally reliable results.
References:
Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983; Cohen & Williamson, 1988
www.psy.cmu.edu/~scohen/
Cost:
Permission for use of the scale is not necessary when use is for academic research or educational purposes.

Use of the PSS in profit making ventures requires special permission and a nominal charge. Inclusion of the scale within a larger scale that will be copyrighted also requires specific permission. For permission, send a request letter to the contact person with a self-addressed and stamped envelope enclosed.
Availability of Test Manual:
Not applicable
Contact Information:

Ellen Conser
Department of Psychology
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA  15213
conser@andrew.cmu.edu

Laurie Nelson
Department of Psychology
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA  15213
lanelson@andrew.cmu.edu

Utility
Instructions:
Read to subject over the phone or in person, or the subject may read the questions her/himself
Administrator:
Not specified
Qualification:
Not specified, but respondent must be able to read the questions, score the test, and/or operate a phone
Training Required:
No specified training
Administration Time:
A few minutes
Respondents:
Individuals with at least a junior high education
Scales/Item Options:
Subjects' responses are measured on a five-point scale (0 = never, 1 = almost never, 2 =sometimes, 3 = fairly often, 4 = very often).
Scoring:
PSS-4 scores are obtained by summing across all four items. Scoring items 2 and 3 requires reverse coding. This involves assigning the opposite score so a score of 0=4, 1=3, 2=2, 3=1, and 4=0. The higher the score, the more perceived stress.
Languages:
English, Arabic, Chinese, Greek, Korean, Spanish, Vietnamese
Psychometric Properties:
PSS-4 is based on psychometric principles and is considered to be sound. However, the limited four-item abridged scale suffers in internal reliability (r=.60). It provides a less adequate approximation of perceived stress levels than the larger scales. Test-retest reliability and predictive validity are strongest for shorter time periods.

The 10- and 14-item self-report instruments have established reliability and validity (r=0.85).


#45 North Carolina Family Assessment Scale-General (NCFAS-G)
Introduction
Title:
North Carolina Family Assessment Scale-General (NCFAS-G)
Author:
Kirk, R., in cooperation with the National Family Preservation Network
Date:
2007
Domain:
Parenting Skills, Formal/Informal Sources of Support and Involvement, Family Relationships, Child and Family Health
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Pre-post survey
Uses of Information:
This instrument may be used for assessment and measurement of family functioning in family-based child abuse and neglect prevention/intervention programs. It would be an appropriate tool to help develop targeted services to families and evaluate service outcomes.
Environment:
Family support program, clinical environment, home-based services, family-based services environment
Description:
The NCFS-G is a worker-administered rating scale that provides a pre-post measurement for families served by family-based service providers in programs in which the focus of the intervention or service is child abuse/neglect prevention or differential response.
References:
The research report on the field-testing of the NCFAS-G has been submitted to the American Humane Association Differential Response Program for publication. A summary of the research report is available online at http://www.nfpn.org/tools--training/articles/ncfas-g-an-assessment-scale-for-low-to-moderate-risk-families.html.
Cost:
The copyrighted scale and training materials can be purchased through the National Family Preservation Network. Costs vary according to the number of workers to be trained. To request a price quote, go to http://www.nfpn.org/link-inquiry.html.
Availability of Test Manual:

Information on obtaining training packages can be found at http://www.nfpn.org/general-services/general-services-training-package/general-services-training-package-ncfas-g.html.

The NCFAS-G Training Package contains:

  • License to use the NCFAS-G Scale
  • NCFAS-G Scale and definitions
  • Case example and scale ratings
  • Video training guide
  • PowerPoint presentation
  • Sample case plan and forms to develop case plans
  • Frequently asked questions
  • Database CD (computerized version of scale) and Instruction Manual
Contact Information:

http://www.nfpn.org/general-services/general-services-training-package/general-services-training-package-ncfas-g.html

Priscilla Martens, Executive Director, National Family Preservation Network
3971 North 1400 East

Buhl, ID 83316
Tel: 888.498.9047 (Mountain Time Zone)
Email: director@nfpn.org
Utility
Instructions:
It is suggested that the ratings be completed within 1-2 weeks of intake (I) and again within 1-2 weeks of service or case closure (C).
Administrator:
The NCFAS-G measures family functioning in eight domains; each of these domains comprises 5 to 10 subscales. Scales are measured using a 6-point, Likert-type scoring strategy ranging from “Serious Problem” to “Clear Strength.”
Qualification:
The worker should have received training either by a trainer provided through the National Family Preservation Network and/or by viewing the training video and completing the exercises that are part of the NCFAS-G training package.
Training Required:
Use of the scale requires an in-depth knowledge of the family being rated. Training packages are available through the National Family Preservation Network.
Administration Time:
Average time is 30 minutes. However, the worker needs to be very familiar with the family prior to rating the scale.
Respondents:
This scale is a worker rating scale rather that a self-report scale.
Scales/Item Options:

Environment, Parental Capabilities, Family Interactions, Family Safety, Child Well-Being, Social/Community Life, Self-Sufficiency, and Family Health. These scales are grouped further into 5-10 subscales each.

Examples of individual items include disciplinary practices, environment, housing stability, and provision of developmental/ enrichment opportunities.

Scoring:

Each item is scored as follows: +2 = Clear Strength, +1 = Mild Strength, 0 = Baseline/Adequate, -1 = Mild Problem, -2 = Moderate Problem, and -3 = Serious Problem. The scale is intended to be an intrarater scale, meaning that the same worker does the initial rating as well as the closing rating on the same family. It is designed to be completed following home visits with the family.

Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:
The NCFAS-G has been field tested with over 100 families and 250 children participating in a differential response program. Testing results are encouraging and the psychometric properties indicate a high degree of reliability. Scale ratings obtained by workers were consistent with the low to moderate risk families engaged in the differential response programs. Additional information on the NCFAS-G can be obtained on the National Family Preservation Website, http://www.nfpn.org/general-services/general-services-training-package/general-services-training-package-ncfas-g.html


#46 Resiliency Scales for Children & Adolescents - A Profile of Personal Strengths (RSCA)
Introduction
Title:
Resiliency Scales for Children & Adolescents - A Profile of Personal Strengths (RSCA)
Author:
Prince-Embury, S.
Date:
2005
Domain:
Child Development, Child and Family Health, Parenting
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Three scales of 20 to 24 items each and ten subscales
Uses of Information:
The Resiliency Scales for Adolescents measure three areas of perceived strength and/or vulnerability related to psychological resilience. The RSCA Personal Resiliency Profile may be used for screening for prevention programs and for referral, or in combination with the Beck Youth Inventories (or other symptom-based measures) to link characteristics of resiliency with specific symptoms for more targeted treatment planning.

The scales may be used in individual clinical settings, school settings, and therapeutic group settings.
Environment:
Individual clinical settings, school settings, and therapeutic group settings
Description:
The three Resiliency Scales may be used together or as stand-alone global scales:
  • Sense of Mastery Scale - measures optimism, self-efficacy, and adaptability
  • Sense of Relatedness Scale - measures trust, support, comfort, and tolerance
  • Emotional Reactivity Scale - measures sensitivity, recovery, and impairment
References:
Cicchetti & Cohen (Eds.); Seligman, 1995; Werner & Smith, 2001
Cost:
Resiliency Scales for Children & Adolescents
Manual and 25 combination scales booklets: $89.00
Combination scales booklets: $51.00
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. Contact developers.
Contact Information:
Harcourt Assessment, Inc.
19500 Bulverde Road
San Antonio, TX 78259
1.800.211.8378
Utility
Instructions:
The Resiliency Scales may be administered individually for treatment planning, counseling, and outcome monitoring. The scales may also be administered in groups for the purpose of preventive screening.
Administrator:
The scales should be completed in a quiet, comfortable place, free from distractions. Inventories may be administered to individuals or to groups of youth. The test administrator should have established rapport with the youth before administering the test and should explain how test results will be used.
Qualification:
The Resiliency Scales may be administered by a variety of individuals under the supervision of an individual responsible for the overall administration and interpretation of the inventories. The supervisor should be trained in clinical assessment procedures and knowledgeable about the appropriate uses and limitations of psychological tests with respect to reliability and validity.
Training Required:
No specific training is required for administration. The person scoring the scale should be familiar with the manual, and the person interpreting the scale should be trained in clinical assessment procedures.
Administration Time:
Depending upon the youth's reading ability and mental status, each record form takes approximately minutes to complete. The combination form may take approximately 15 minutes. Time may be adjusted to meet the individual needs of the youth completing the inventory.
Respondents:
Children and adolescents ages 9 through 18 years
Scales/Item Options:
The Resiliency Scales are self-report scales. Items are scored with paper and pencil by choosing one of five responses from 0 (Never) to 4 (Almost Always). The Resiliency Scales are written at a third-grade reading level.

Sample items from the Sense of Mastery Scale include:
  • "If I try hard, it makes a difference."
  • "I can let others help me when I need to."
  • "No matter what happens, things will be all right."
Sample items from the Sense of Relatedness Scale include:
  • "I can make up with friends after a fight."
  • "If something bad happens, I can ask my parent(s) for help."
  • "There are people who love and care about me."
Sample items from the Emotional Reactivity Scale include:
  • "When I get upset, I stay upset for several days."
  • "When I am upset, I do things that I later feel bad about."
  • "I can get so upset that I can't stand how I feel."
Scoring:
The total raw score for each of the global scales is obtained by summing all item scores for each scale. Raw scores are transformed to standardized T scores using computed means and standard deviations for normative groups (by age and by gender). T scores allow profiling across scales.
Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:
The standardization sample included 200 children ages 15 through 18 years, matched to the U.S. census by ethnicity and by parent education level within sex and age band.

Chronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from .93 to .95 for the total sample and for males and females indicating good internal consistency.

The standard error of measurement ranged from .90 to 2.45 for the total sample on all subscales, indicating good reliability.

Test-retest reliability, computed on a subsample of 65 adolescents, was good to excellent, ranging from .70 to .92 for males and females on all subscales.

Validity correlations for internal structure indicate that global scales are significantly related to each other, but not to the extent that they could be considered the same construct.


#47 Parent-Child Relationship Inventory
Introduction
Title:
Parent-Child Relationship Inventory
Author:
Gerard, A. B.
Date:
2005
Domain:
Parenting, Family Relationships
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
The PCRI is a 78-item self-report questionnaire that can be administered to either an individual or a group.
Uses of Information:
The PCRI is designed to be used in clinical evaluations of children and families in combination with qualitative evaluation and clinical judgment by making normative comparisons possible. The PCRI should never be used in isolation as the sole basis for clinical diagnoses, treatment decisions, or custody recommendations.
Environment:
The PCRI may be used in clinical and research settings.
Description:
The PCRI comprises seven content scales that explore specific aspects of the parent-child relationship:
  1. The Parental Support scale consists of 9 items that assess the level of emotional and social support a parent receives.
  2. The Satisfaction With Parenting scale consists of 10 items measuring the amount of pleasure and fulfillment an individual derives from being a parent.
  3. The Involvement scale contains 14 items measuring the level of a parent's interaction with and knowledge of his or her child.
  4. The Communication scale consists of 9 items that assess a parent's perception of how effectively he or she communicates with a child.
  5. The Limit Settings scale contains 12 items that focus on a parent's experience disciplining a child.
  6. The Autonomy scale assesses the ability of a parent to promote a child's independence.
  7. The Role Orientation scale is comprised of 9 items and examines parents' attitudes about gender roles in parenting.
References:
Impara & Plake (Eds.), 1998
Cost:
  • KIT (25 AutoScore Answer Sheets and Manual); $99.00
  • Autoscore answer sheet (Pkgs. of 25): $47.00
  • Spanish test form (Pkgs. of 5): $17.00
  • Manual: $58.00
  • Continuing education questionnaire and answer form: $20.00
  • PCRI mail-in answer sheet: $17.50
  • PCRI CD (PC with Windows 98, ME, XP, or 2000): $356.50
  • PCRI PC answer sheet for use with the PCRI CD (Pads of 100: $16.50
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. Contact developer to order manual.
Contact Information:
Western Psychological Services
12031 Wilshire Boulevard
Los Angeles, CA 90025-1251
800.648.8857
310.478.7838 (Fax)
http://portal.wpspublish.com/
Utility
Instructions:
It is suggested that clinicians explain to parents how they intend to use the information from the PCRI in their evaluation. Parents may be asked to respond to the PCRI based on their relationship with only one of their children when appropriate.
Administration:
The client responds to all 78 items on a 4-point scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree.
Qualification:
The clinician using the scale should have clinical experience, sensitivity, and a through knowledge of the research on parent-child interactions. The PCRI is designed for use by individuals with a background in psychological assessment.
Training Required:
No specific training is required for administrators other than familiarity with the content presented in the test manual, the scoring forms, and the scoring procedures.
Administration Time:
There is no time limit for taking the PCRI, but most clients complete the form in about 15 minutes.
Respondents:
The PCRI is a self-report instrument.
Scales/Item Options:
The PCRI consists of seven scales: Parental Support, Satisfaction with Parenting, Involvement, Communication, Limit Setting, Autonomy, and Role Orientation.

Item examples:
  • "My feelings about being a parent change from day to day."
  • "My child is out of control much of the time."
  • "My life is very stressful right now."
Scoring:
Once the client has completed the PCRI, the clinician transfers scores to the PCRI Profile Form that yields raw scores, normalized T-scores, and standardized scores.

In addition, the PCRI includes two validity indicators: the Social Desirability scale, which indicates whether the client was operating with a defensive or "fake good" response set, and an inconsistency indicator, which indicates if the client may have been responding randomly or inattentively.
Languages:
English and Spanish
Psychometric Properties:
Normative data on the PCRI were collected on a sample of more than 1,100 (predominately White) mothers and fathers across the United States in four major geographical areas (Northeast, South, Midwest, and West).

The internal consistency (the extent to which the items in a scale reflect a common trait or dimension) is good, with a median value of .82.

Test-retest reliability (the test's ability to elicit similar responses from clients across administrations) is good, with a mean scale autocorrelation of .81.

The construct validity (the extent to which the PCRI measures the trait it is intended to measure), based on internal consistency and the correlation of each individual item with its scale, is good.


#48 Multi-Problem Screening Questionnaire (MPSQ)
Introduction
Title:
Multi-Problem Screening Questionnaire (MPSQ)
Author:
Hudson, W. W.
Date:
1997
Domain:
Child and Family Health, Family Relationships
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
The MPSQ is a 65-item self-report questionnaire administered to individual adults.
Uses of Information:
The MPSQ is used at intake for initial problem assessment and service or treatment planning, and at intervals during intervention to monitor progress and for program evaluation.
Environment:
The MPSQ may be used in individual and family-focused clinical settings and intervention programs.
Description:
The MPSQ is comprised of eight subscales:
  1. Personal Adjustment
  2. Partner Relationship
  3. Family Adjustment
  4. Work Adjustment
  5. School adjustment
  6. Social Adjustment
  7. Financial Problems
  8. Play and Leisure
References:
Corcoran & Fischer, 2006
Cost:
  • Multi-Problem Screening Questionnaire (10 copies): $22.50
  • Walmyr Assessment Scoring Manual: $20.00
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. Contact WALMYR Publishing.
Contact Information:
WALMYR Publishing Company
PO Box 12217
Tallahassee, FL 32317-2217
850.383.0045
850.383.0970 (Fax)
www.walmyr.com/index.html
Utility
Instructions:
It is suggested that clinicians explain to clients why they are asking the clients to complete the MPSQ and how they are going to use the information. The MPSQ may be administered in either an unstructured manner where the test administrator provides only general instructions to the client and the client completes the entire MPSQ, or in a structured manner in which the subscales are reviewed in advance and the client completes only those subscales that seem to apply. Structured administration increases the relevance and clarity of the information gathered to particular interventions and evaluation. Structured administration would not be used for screening or when the client was unknown to the administrator.
Administration:
The client responds to all items on the test form by selecting one response from a 7-point scale ranging from "None of the time" to "All of the time."
Qualification:
The clinician using the scale should have professional training and clinical experience related to adult and adolescent psychology and social and emotional development and functioning and should be knowledgeable about family systems.
Training Required:
No specific training is required for administrators other than familiarity with the content of the subscales, the scoring forms, and the scoring procedures. The author recommends that test administrators take the test themselves before administering it to others.
Administration Time:
There is no specific time limit for administration. The authors characterize the MPSQ administration as "rapid."
Respondents:
The MPSQ is a self-report, paper-and-pencil instrument.
Scales/Item Options:
The MPSQ consists of eight subscales. Example items from each subscale are presented below:
  • Personal Adjustment - "How often do you feel that your thinking is confused?"
  • Partner Relationship - "How often do you and your partner have serious arguments?"
  • Family Adjustment - "How often do you feel that yours is a very unhappy family?"
  • Work Adjustment - "How often do you feel that you dislike or even hate your job?"
  • School Adjustment - "How often do you put off studies at school until the last minute?"
  • Social Adjustment - "How often do you feel really isolated from others?"
  • Financial Problems - "How often are you late in paying your bills?"
  • Play and Leisure - "How often do you feel you need more leisure and play?"
Scoring:
Each subscale of the MPSQ produces a score ranging from 0 to 100, where a low score indicates the relative absence of the problem being measured and higher scores indicate the presence of a more severe problem. Scores may be interpreted numerically, by specific item content, or through a graphic profile that provides a comprehensive view across subscales.
Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:
Normative data supporting the validity and reliability of the MPSQ were not reported.


#49 Multi-Problem Screening Inventory (MPSI)
Introduction
Title:
Multi-Problem Screening Inventory (MPSI)
Author:
Hudson, W. W.
Date:
1990
Domain:
Child and Family Health, Family Relationships, Formal/Informal Sources of Support and Involvement
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
The MPSI is a 334-item self-report questionnaire that is administered to individual adults.
Uses of Information:
The MPSI is used at intake for initial problem assessment and service or treatment planning, and at intervals during intervention to monitor progress and for program evaluation.
Environment:
The MPSI may be used in individual and family-focused clinical settings and intervention programs.
Description:
The MPSI is comprised of 27 subscales:
  1. Depression
  2. Self-Esteem
  3. Partner Problems
  4. Sexual Discord
  5. Child Problems
  6. Mother Problems
  7. Father Problems
  8. Personal Stress
  9. Friend Problems
  10. Neighbor Problems
  11. School Problems
  12. Aggression
  13. Work Associates
  14. Family Problems
  1. Suicide
  2. Nonphysical Abuse
  3. Physical Abuse
  4. Fearfulness
  5. Ideas of Reference
  6. Phobias
  7. Guilt
  8. Work Problems
  9. Confused Thinking
  10. Disturbing Thoughts
  11. Memory Loss
  12. Alcohol Abuse
  13. Drug Abuse
References:
Hudson & McMurtry, January, 1997
Cost:
  • MPSI (10 copies): $22.50
  • MPSI-Spanish (10 copies): $22.50
  • Multi-Problem Screening Questionnaire (10 copies): $22.50
  • Walmyr Assessment Scoring Manual: $20.00
  • MPSI Technical Manual: $20.00
  • MPSI Technical Manual - Spanish: $20.00
  • MPSI Starter Kit: $60.00
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. Contact WALMYR.
Contact Information:
WALMYR Publishing Company
PO Box 12217
Tallahassee, FL 32317-2217
850.383.0045
850.383.0970 (Fax)
www.walmyr.com/index.html
Utility
Instructions:
It is suggested that clinicians explain to clients why they are asking the clients to complete the MPSI and how they are going to use the information. The MPSI may be administered in either an unstructured manner, where the test administrator provides only general instructions to the client and the client completes the entire MPSI, or in a structured manner in which the subscales are reviewed in advance and the client completes only those subscales that seem to apply.
Administration:
Structured administration increases the relevance and clarity of the information gathered to particular interventions and evaluation. Structured administration would not be used for screening, or when the client was unknown to the administrator.

The client responds to all items on the test form by selecting one response from a 7-point scale ranging from "None of the time" to "All of the time."
Qualification:
The clinician using the scale should have professional training and clinical experience related to adult and adolescent psychology and social and emotional development and functioning, and should be knowledgeable about family systems.
Training Required:
No specific training is required for administrators other than familiarity with the content of the subscales, the scoring forms, and the scoring procedures. The author recommends that test administrators take the test themselves before administering it to others.
Administration Time:
Most clients complete the form in 30 to 45 minutes. There is no specific time limit for administration.
Respondents:
The MPSI is a self-report, paper-and-pencil instrument.
Scales/Item Options:
The MPSI consists of 27 subscales: Depression, Self-Esteem, Partner Problems, Sexual Discord, Child Problems, Mother Problems, Father Problems, Personal Stress, Friend Problems, Neighbor Problems, School Problems, Aggression, Work Associates, Family Problems, Suicide, Nonphysical Abuse, Physical Abuse, Fearfulness, Ideas of Reference, Phobias, Guilt, Work Problems, Confused Thinking, Disturbing Thoughts, Memory loss, Alcohol Abuse, and Drug Abuse.

Examples of items from five subscales:
  • Nonphysical Abuse - "My partner belittles me."
  • Fearfulness - "I am terrified that something really bad will happen to me."
  • Ideas of Reference - "I think people talk about me behind my back."
  • Confused Thinking - "There are times when my mind plays tricks on me."
  • Disturbing Thoughts - "I cannot get certain bad thoughts out of my mind."
Scoring:
Each subscale of the MPSI produces a score ranging from 0 to 100 where a low score indicates the relative absence of the problem being measured and higher scores indicate the presence of a more severe problem. Scores may be interpreted numerically, by specific item content, or through a graphic profile that provides a comprehensive view across subscales.
Languages:
English and Spanish
Psychometric Properties:
The normative sample for the MPSI was primarily gathered from those who grew up and live in western cultures; therefore, the MPSI should be administered to those from western cultures.

Reliability is .80 and higher for all MPSI subscales, and the Standard Error of Measurement is.05 or less.

Preliminary studies of the content and factorial validity (providing evidence that a test measures what it purports to measure) and construct validity (providing evidence that a test accurately discriminates among those who do and those who do not have clinically significant problems) were reported for the MPSI subscales. The authors report that the content and construct validity of the MPSI subscales are strong enough to support the use of the MPSI in practice and in research.


#50 Multidimensional Adolescent Assessment Scale (MAAS)
Introduction
Title:
Multidimensional Adolescent Assessment Scale (MAAS)
Author:
Hudson, W. W.
Date:
1996
Domain:
Child and Family Health, Parenting, Family Relationships
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
The Multidimensional Adolescent Assessment Scale (MAAS), an alternative form of the Multi-Problem Screening Inventory (MPSI), is designed to measure the degree, severity, and magnitude of problems in personal and social functioning among adolescents.

The MAAS is a 177-item self-report questionnaire that is administered to individual adolescents (12 years or older).
Uses of Information:
The MAAS is a problem-focused assessment designed as an aid to diagnosis and for treatment planning. The MAAS may also be used for periodic reevaluation to monitor intervention progress and outcomes.
Environment:
The MAAS may be used with adolescents in individual and family-focused clinical settings and intervention programs.
Description:
Not specified
References:
Hudson & McMurtry, January, 1997
Cost:
  • MAAS (10 copies): $22.50
  • Walmyr Assessment Scoring Manual: $20.00
  • MPSI Technical Manual: $20.00
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. Contact WALYMR.
Contact Information:
WALMYR Publishing Company
PO Box 12217
Tallahassee, FL 32317-2217
850.383.0045
850.383.0970 (Fax)
www.walmyr.com/index.html
Utility
Instructions:
Not specified
Administration:
Structured administration increases the relevance and clarity of the information gathered to particular interventions and evaluation. Structured administration would not be used for screening, or when the client was unknown to the administrator.

The adolescent responds to all items on the test form by selecting one response from a 7-point scale ranging from "None of the time" to "All of the time."
Qualification:
The clinician using the scale should have professional training and clinical experience related to adolescents' social and emotional development and functioning.
Training Required:
No specific training is required for administrators other than familiarity with the content of the subscales, the scoring forms, and the scoring procedures. The author recommends that test administrators take the test themselves before administering it to others.
Administration Time:
Most clients complete the form in 30 to 45 minutes. There is no specific time limit for administration.
Respondents:
The MAAS is a self-report, paper-and-pencil instrument.
Scales/Item Options:
The MAAS consists of 16 scales: Depression, Self-Esteem, Problems With Mother, Problems With Father, Personal Stress, Problems With Friends, Problems With School, Aggression, Family Relationship Problems, Suicidal Thoughts, Feelings of Guilt, Confused Thinking, Disturbing Thoughts, Memory Loss, Alcohol Abuse, and Drug Use.

Examples of items from three subscales:
  • Depression - "I feel powerless to do anything about my life."
  • Personal Stress - "I feel that I am losing control of my life."
  • Suicidal Thoughts - "I feel that it is useless for me to continue living."
Scoring:
Each subscale of the MAAS produces a score ranging from 0 to 100, where a low score indicates the relative absence of the problem being measured, and higher scores indicate the presence of a more severe problem. Scores may be interpreted numerically, by specific item content, or through a graphic profile that provides a comprehensive view across subscales.

Some of the subscales also provide cutting scores of 30, which indicate the score below which clients are generally free of problems in the area measured and above which clients have a clinically significant problem in the area measured.
Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:
The normative sample for the MAAS was primarily gathered from those who grew up and live in western culture; therefore, the MAAS should be administered to adolescents who grew up in Western culture.

Reliability and standard error scores were reported to be .80 and higher for all MPSI subscales. Reliability and standard error scores were not reported specifically for the MAAS subscales.

Preliminary studies of the content and factorial validity (providing evidence that a test measures what it purports to measure) and construct validity (providing evidence that a test accurately discriminates among those who do and those who do not have clinically significant problems) were reported for the MPSI but not specifically for the MAAS subscales. The authors report that the content and construct validity of the MPSI subscales are strong enough to support the use of the MPSI in practice and in research.


#51 Index of Peer Relations (IPR)
Introduction
Title:
Index of Peer Relations (IPR)
Author:
Hudson, W. W.
Date:
1993
Domain:
Parenting, Family Relationships, Child and Family Health
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
The IPR is a short-form, 25-item self-report questionnaire that is administered to individual adults and young adults over the age of 12 years. Those completing the questionnaire must be literate and have no severe cognitive impairment.
Uses of Information:
The Index of Peer Relations (IPR) measures the degree, severity, or magnitude of problems a client is experiencing in relationships with peers.

The IPR is used at intake for screening, initial problem assessment, and service or treatment planning, and at intervals during intervention to monitor progress and for program evaluation.
Environment:
The IPR may be used in individual and family-focused clinical settings and intervention programs.
Description:
The IPR was developed specifically to capture information about problems a client is experiencing with peer relationships in general or with a specific peer group. The reading level for the IPR is Grade 3 and higher.
References:
Klein, Beltran, & Sowers-Hoag, 1990; Nurius, Hudson, Daley, & Newsome, 1988
Cost:
  • IPR Scale (1 pad of 50 copies): $22.50
  • Walmyr Assessment Scoring Manual: $20.00
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. Contact WALYMR.
Contact Information:
WALMYR Publishing Company
PO Box 12217
Tallahassee, FL 32317-2217
850.383.0045
850.383.0970 (Fax)
www.walmyr.com/index.html
Utility
Instructions:
It is suggested that clinicians explain to clients why they are asking the clients to complete the IPR and how they are going to use the information.
Administration:
The client responds to all items on the test form by selecting one response from a 7-point scale ranging from "None of the time" to "All of the time." The IPR may be administered with respect to peer relations in the client's life in general, or it may be more focused on a particular peer group in the client's life.
Qualification:
The clinician using the scale should have professional training and clinical experience related to adult and adolescent psychology and social and emotional development.
Training Required:
No specific training is required for administrators other than familiarity with the content of the IPR, the scoring form, and the scoring procedures. The author recommends that test administrators take the IPR themselves before administering it to others.
Administration Time:
There is no specific time limit for administration. The author reports that administration is rapid.
Respondents:
The IPR is a self-report, paper-and-pencil instrument.
Scales/Item Options:
The IPR scale has 25 items. Four item examples from the IPR are presented below:
  • "My peers don't even seem to notice me."
  • "Me peers seem to look down on me."
  • "I wish I were not part of this peer group."
  • "My peers are a bunch of snobs."
Scoring:
The IPR produces a score ranging from 0 to 100, where a low score indicates the relative absence of the problem being measured, and a higher score indicates the presence of a more severe problem. The cutting score of 30 is the score at which clients may have a clinically significant problem. A score of 70 or higher may indicate the client is experiencing severe distress.
Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:
The reliability alpha is .94, indicating that the scale is internally consistent and that alternative forms should yield consistent results. The Standard Error of Measurement is 4.44, indicating that the IPR is a relatively accurate measure.


#52 Index of Family Relations (IFR)
Introduction
Title:
Index of Family Relations (IFR)
Author:
Hudson, W. W.
Date:
1993
Domain:
Family Relationships, Parenting, Child and Family Health
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
The Index of Family Relations (IFR) assesses the severity or magnitude of client problems of personal and social functioning in the area of family adjustment. The IFR characterizes the severity of family relationship problems in a global manner and can be regarded as a measure of intrafamilial stress.

The IFR is a short-form, 25-item self-report questionnaire that is administered to individual adults and young adults, 12 years of age and older, who are literate and have no severe cognitive impairment.
Uses of Information:
The IFR is used at intake for screening, initial problem assessment, and service or treatment planning, and at intervals during intervention to monitor progress and for program evaluation.
Environment:
The IFR may be used in individual and family-focused clinical settings and intervention programs.
Description:
The IFR was designed to measure the degree, severity, or magnitude of a problem that family members have in their relationships with one another as felt or perceived by the person completing the scale. The IFR is appropriately used as a measure of the client's family environment and it may be used to help the client deal with problems in relating to the family as a whole. The reading level for the IFR is grade 5 or higher.
References:
Bentley & Harrison, 1990; Grief & DeMarris, 1989; Hamilton & Orme, 1990; Hudson & Acklin, 1980
Cost:
  • IFR Scale (1 pad of 50 copies): $22.50
  • Walmyr Assessment Scoring Manual: $20.00
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. Contact WALYMR.
Contact Information:
WALMYR Publishing Company
PO Box 12217
Tallahassee, FL 32317-2217
850.383.0045
850.383.0970 (Fax)
www.walmyr.com/index.html
Utility
Instructions:
It is suggested that clinicians explain to clients why they are asking the clients to complete the IFR and how they are going to use the information.
Administration:
The client responds to all items on the test form by selecting one response from a 7-point scale ranging from "None of the time" to "All of the time."
Qualification:
The clinician using the scale should have professional training and clinical experience related to adult and child psychology and social and emotional development and functioning and should be knowledgeable about family systems.
Training Required:
No specific training is required for administrators other than familiarity with the content of the IFR, the scoring form, and the scoring procedures. The author recommends that test administrators take the IFR themselves before administering it to others.
Administration Time:
There is no specific time limit for administration. The author reports that administration is rapid.
Respondents:
The IFR is a self-report, paper-and-pencil instrument.
Scales/Item Options:
The IFR scale has 25 items. Four item examples from the IFR are presented below:
  • "I can really depend on my family."
  • "Members of my family argue too much."
  • "Other families seem to get along better than ours."
  • "I feel left out of my family."
Scoring:
The IFR produces a score ranging from 0 to 100, where a low score indicates the relative absence of the problem being measured, and a higher score indicates the presence of a more severe problem. The cutting score of 30 is the score at which clients may have a clinically significant problem. Scores above 70 may indicate severe stress or the possibility of violence. IFR scores should always be considered in relation to all other client data and information.
Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:
The reliability alpha is .95, indicating that the scale is internally consistent and that alternative forms should yield consistent results. The Standard Error of Measurement is 3.65, indicating that the IFR is a relatively accurate measure.


#53 Index of Clinical Stress (ICS)
Introduction
Title:
Index of Clinical Stress (ICS)
Author:
Hudson, W. W.
Date:
1997
Domain:
Child and Family Health, Formal/Informal Sources of Support and Involvement
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
The ICS is a short-form, 25-item self-report questionnaire that is administered to individual adults and young adults over the age of 12 years. Those completing the questionnaire must be literate and have no severe cognitive impairment.
Uses of Information:
The Index of Clinical Stress (ICS) measures the degree or magnitude of clients' perceptions of personal stress.

The ICS is used at intake for screening, initial problem assessment, and service or treatment planning, and at intervals during intervention to monitor progress and for program evaluation.
Environment:
The ICS may be used in individual and family-focused clinical settings and intervention programs.
Description:
The ICS was developed specifically to capture information about a client's perceptions of an imbalance between the demands of daily living and his or her ability to respond to those demands. The reading level for the ICS is Grade 4 and higher.
References:
Abell, 1991; Hudson, MacNeil, & Dierks, 1995
Cost:
  • ICS Scale (1 pad of 50 copies): $22.50
  • Walmyr Assessment Scoring Manual: $20.00
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. Contact WALYMR.
Contact Information:
WALMYR Publishing Company
PO Box 12217
Tallahassee, FL 32317-2217
850.383.0045
850.383.0970 (Fax)
www.walmyr.com/index.html
Utility
Instructions:
It is suggested that clinicians explain to clients why they are asking the clients to complete the ICS and how they are going to use the information.
Administration:
The client responds to all items on the test form by selecting one response from a 7-point scale ranging from "None of the time" to "All of the time." The ICS may be administered with respect to global stress in the client's life, or it may be more focused on a particular aspect of the client's life such as work, school, finances, health, or family.
Qualification:
The clinician using the scale should have professional training and clinical experience related to adult and adolescent psychology and social and emotional development.
Training Required:
No specific training is required for administrators other than familiarity with the content of the ICS, the scoring form, and the scoring procedures. The author recommends that test administrators take the ICS themselves before administering it to others.
Administration Time:
There is no specific time limit for administration. The author reports that administration is rapid.
Respondents:
The ICS is a self-report, paper-and-pencil instrument.
Scales/Item Options:
The ICS scale has 25 items. Four item examples from the ICS are presented below:
  • "I feel so anxious I want to cry."
  • "I feel that I can't keep up with all the demands on me."
  • "I feel that I am near a breaking point."
  • "I feel that I am losing control of my life."
Scoring:
The ICS produces a score ranging from 0 to 100, where a low score indicates the relative absence of the problem being measured, and a higher score indicates the presence of a more severe problem. The cutting score of 30 is the score at which clients may have a clinically significant problem.
Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:
The reliability alpha is .90, indicating that the scale is internally consistent and that alternative forms should yield consistent results. The Standard Error of Measurement is 5.02, indicating that the ICS is a relatively accurate measure.


#54 FAMILY ENVIRONMENT SCALE (FOURTH EDITION)
Introduction
Title:
Family Environment Scale (Fourth Edition)
Author:
Moos, B. S., & Moos, R. H.
Date:
2002
Domain:

Child and Family Health, Formal and Informal Sources of Support and Community Involvement, Family Relationships

Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):

The pre-, post-, and repeated measure survey includes 90 items to measure 10 subscales.
The Family Environment Scale (FES) examines, through self-report on three separate forms, the social climate of a family in three ways:

  • Family members' perceptions of their family as it is (real)
  • Family members' perceptions of their family as it would be in a perfect situation (ideal)
  • Family members' perceptions of their family in new situations (expected)
Uses of Information:
The FES is appropriately used to facilitate family counseling and psychotherapy in clinical settings, to plan and monitor family change, as a teaching tool to train clinicians and program evaluators about family systems, and to evaluate intervention progress and outcomes.
Environment:
The FES may be used in clinical counseling settings, for home and family-based services, and for family support programs.
Description:

The FES is composed of 10 subscales measuring three underlying dimensions of the family environment:

  • Relationship:
    Cohesion – the degree of commitment, help, and support family members provide for one another
    Expressiveness – the extent to which family members are encouraged to express their feelings directly
    Conflict – the amount of openly expressed anger and conflict among family members
  • Personal Growth:
    Independence – the extent to which family members are assertive and self-sufficient and make their own decisions
    Achievement orientation – how much activities (such as school and work) are cast into an achievement-oriented or competitive framework
    Intellectual-cultural orientation – the level of interest in political, intellectual, and cultural activities Active-recreational orientation – the amount of participation in social and recreational activities
    Moral-religious emphasis – the emphasis on ethical and religious issues and values
  • System Maintenance:
    Organization – the degree of importance of clear organization and structure in planning family activities and responsibilities
    Control – how much set rules and procedures are used to run family life
References:

Moos, R., & Moos. B. (1983). Clinical applications of the Family Environment Scale. In E. Filsinger (Ed.), A sourcebook of marriage and family assessment (pp. 253-273). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Cost:

The copyrighted scale and forms may be purchased online or in paper copy by mail. The manual is $40.00, and a set that may be duplicated is $120.00. The cost of forms depends upon the number purchased.

Availability of Test Manual:

Yes. Contact Mindgarden (see below).

Contact Information:

Mindgarden
855 Oak Grove Avenue, Suite 215
Menlo Park, CA 94025
650.322.6300 (phone) 650.322.6398 (fax)
http://www.mindgarden.com/products/fescs.htm

Utility
Instructions:
The FES may be used upon intake diagnostically and for assessment of risk; periodically to monitor intervention progress; and before and after intervention for research and program evaluation.
Administrator:
The FES is composed of 10 subscales measuring three underlying dimensions of the family environment: Relationship, Personal Growth, and System Maintenance. To introduce the FES, the administrator reads the instructions aloud while the client follows along in the test booklet. Respondents complete the FES by reading the reusable test booklet and scoring corresponding items on the test form. Administrators may clarify the meanings of words in test items, being careful not to influence the test-taker's response.
Qualification:

The FES should be administered and interpreted by trained psychologists, social workers, or education and medical personnel knowledgeable in family systems theory.

Before administering and interpreting the FES, one should be familiar with the FES Manual and with general assessment guidelines (such as providing a quiet, private, well-lit space) and how to provide support without influencing responses.

Training Required:
Before administering and interpreting the FES, one should be familiar with the FES Manual and with general assessment guidelines (such as providing a quiet, private, well-lit space) and how to provide support without influencing responses.
Administration Time:
No time estimate for administration is provided.
Respondents:
The FES is a self-report assessment for use by parents and adolescent children. A Children's Version of the FES, a 30-item pictorial adaptation for use with children between the ages of 5 and 11, is also available.
Scales/Item Options:

The three dimensions and 10 subscales are represented by 90 items in each of the Form Item test booklets (Real, Ideal, and Expected). Items are scored true/false.
Item examples:

  • "Family members often keep their feelings to themselves."
  • "We feel it is important to be the best at whatever you do."
  • "Family members have strict ideas about what is right and wrong."
Scoring:

Individual subscale scores and family mean scores may be converted to standard scores. Some investigators have used a multi-point rather than a two-point (true/false) format, but as much information is gained by using the two-point format, and it avoids problems stemming from personal response styles. A Family Incongruence Score may also be calculated and used to describe the level of disagreement within a family.

Languages:
The FES is available in English and has also been adapted and translated into Arabic, Chinese, Danish, Dutch, French, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Portuguese (Portugal) Spanish, and Swedish. Published manuals provide psychometric and normative information on the Dutch and Spanish translations.
Psychometric Properties:

A total of over 1,000 people in 285 families completed Form A in the normative sample. Some racial minority families were represented in the sample, but relative proportions were not reported. The FES Forms I (Ideal) and R (Real) were completed by 591 individuals from a varied group of families including both normal and distressed individuals. No separate norms are available for Form E (Expected). Internal consistency for Forms I and R range from .61 to .78 for the 10 subscales and are within acceptable ranges. Intercorrelations among subscales indicate that the subscales measure distinct though somewhat related aspects of family environments. Test-retest reliability was acceptable at 1-week, 2-month, and 4-month intervals.

The authors include in the FES manual an extensive literature review tied to careful interpretation of the FES subscales.


#55 Children's Behavior Rating
Introduction
Title:
Children's Behavior Rating
Author:
Hudson, W. W.
Date:
1990
Domain:
Child Development, Parenting
Standardized:
No
Instrument Type(s):
The Children's Behavior Rating Scale (CBRS) assesses a parent's, guardian's, or other responsible caregiver's perception of a child's behavior. The person completing the scale must have intimate firsthand knowledge of the child.

The CBRS is a short-form, 20-item behavioral problems checklist. It is administered to individual adult parents or caregivers who are literate and have no severe cognitive impairment.
Uses of Information:
For use at intake for screening or initial problem assessment
Environment:
The CBRS may be used in family-focused clinical settings and intervention programs.
Description:
The CBRS is intended to cover the full range of possible child behavioral disorders, to provide an initial measure of child behavior disorders, and to provide specific information at the item level about dysfunctional behaviors and management problems. The reading level for the CBRS is Grade 4 and higher.
References:
No references are available at this time.
Cost:
  • CBRS forms (1 pad of 50 copies): $22.50
  • Walmyr Assessment Scoring Manual: $20.00
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. Contact WALMYR Publishing.
Contact Information:
WALMYR Publishing Company
PO Box 12217
Tallahassee, FL 32317-2217
850.383.0045
850.383.0970 (Fax)
www.walmyr.com/index.html
Utility
Instructions:
It is suggested that clinicians explain to clients why they are asking the clients to complete the CBRS and how they are going to use the information.
Administration:
The client responds to all items on the test form by selecting one response from a 5-point scale ranging from "Never" to "Always."
Qualification:
The clinician using the scale should have professional training and clinical experience related to adult and adolescent psychology and social and emotional development and functioning, and should be knowledgeable about family systems.
Training Required:
No specific training is required for administrators other than familiarity with the content of the CBRS, the scoring form, and the scoring procedures. The author recommends that test administrators take the CBRS themselves before administering it to others.
Administration Time:
There is no specific time limit for administration. The authors characterize the CBRS administration as "rapid."
Respondents:
The CBRS is a self-report, paper-and-pencil instrument.
Scales/Item Options:
The CBRS scale has 20 items. Four item examples from the CBRS are presented below:
  • "My child disobeys me."
  • "My child demands constant attention."
  • "My child misbehaves when we go out."
  • "My child screams very loudly."
Scoring:
The CBRS produces a score ranging from 0 to 100, but because the CBRS covers a wide range of behaviors, low scores do not necessarily indicate the absence of a significant problem in a given area or areas. High scores, on the other hand, do tend to indicate a multiproblem situation or set of concerns. CBRS scores should always be considered in relation to all other client data and information. For example, if a caregiver's perceptions differ from observations of the child's behavior, that discrepancy should be explored.
Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:
Normative data supporting the validity and reliability of the CBRS were not reported.


#56 Beck Youth Inventories (Second Edition)
Introduction
Title:
Beck Youth Inventories (Second Edition)
Author:
Beck, J. S., Beck, A. T., Jolly, J. B., & Steer, R. A.
Date:
2005
Domain:
Child and Family Health, Child Development, Parenting
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Five, 20-item self-report scales
Uses of Information:
The Beck Youth Inventories contain five scales that may be used separately or in combination to assess a child's experience of depression, anxiety, anger, disruptive behavior, and self-concept. The scales measure stress that children experience in association with mental health problems.

Uses of the scales include brief screening for referrals; clinical tracking children's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors over time; planning interventions (especially in combination with the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA); and monitoring response to interventions through pre- and postadministrations. The scales comply with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
Environment:
Individual and group clinical settings and group educational and therapeutic settings
Description:
Each of the five inventories contains 20 statements about thoughts, feelings, or behaviors associated with emotional and social impairment in children and adolescents. The scales are written at a second-grade reading level. The five scales include:
  • Beck Depression Inventory for Youth (BDI-Y) - This inventory is designed to identify symptoms of depression in children and adolescents, including negative thoughts about self, life, and future; feelings of sadness; and physiological indications of depression.


  • Beck Anxiety Inventory for Youth (BAI-Y) - The items in this inventory reflect children's fears, worrying, and physiological symptoms associated with anxiety.


  • Beck Anger Inventory for Youth (BANI-Y) - The items in this inventory include perceptions of mistreatment, negative thoughts about others, feelings of anger, and physiological arousal.


  • Beck Disruptive Behavior Inventory for Youth (BDBI-Y) - Behaviors and attitudes associated with Conduct Disorder and oppositional-defiant behavior are included.


  • Beck Self-Concept Inventory for Youth (BSCI-Y) - The items in this inventory explore self-perceptions, such as competency, potency, and positive self-worth.
References:
Beck, 1976; Jolly, Arruffo, Wherry, & Livingston, 1993; Kashani, Sherman, Parker, & Reid, 1990
Cost:
  • Beck Youth Inventory - II (BYI-II) Manual: $89.00
  • Combination Inventory Booklets (five scales, pads of 25): $84.00
  • Depression Inventory (pad of 25): $44.00
  • Anxiety Inventory (pad of 25): $44.00
  • Anger Inventory (BANI-Y)(25): $44.00
  • Disruptive Behavior Inventory (BDBI-Y) (25): $44.00
  • Beck Self-Concept Inventory (BSCI-Y) (25): $44.00
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. Contact Harcourt Assessments, Inc.
Contact Information:
Harcourt Assessment, Inc.
19500 Bulverde Road
San Antonio, TX 78259
1.800.211.8378
http://harcourtassessment.com
Utility
Instructions:
The BYI-II may be administered at intake for referral, pre- and postintervention to determine intervention outcomes, or periodically to track progress or changes in status.
Administration:
Inventories should be completed in a quiet, comfortable place, free from distractions. Inventories may be administered to individuals or to groups of youth.
Qualification:
 
Training Required:
No specific training is required for administration. The person scoring the scale should be familiar with the manual, and the person interpreting the scale should be trained in clinical assessment procedures.
Administration Time:
Depending upon the youth's age, reading ability, and mental status, each inventory takes 5 to 10 minutes to complete. Time may be adjusted to meet the individual needs of the youth completing the inventory.
Respondents:
Children and adolescents, ages 7 through 18 years
Scales/Item Options:
Items are scaled from 0 (Never) to 3 (Always). Examples of items from the Anxiety Inventory (BAI-Y) include:
  • "I worry people might tease me."
  • "I worry people might get mad at me."
  • "I'm afraid that something bad might happen to me."
Scoring:
A total raw score is calculated by adding item scores for all 20 items of each scale. Raw scores are transformed to standardized T scores using computed means and standard deviations for normative groups (by age and by gender). T scores allow profiling across scales.
Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:
Normative data were based on a sample of 800 children, ages 7-14, stratified to match the U.S. census by race/ethnicity and by parent education within four age groups by gender. A special education sample of 89 children was also included.

Chronbach's alpha coefficients ranging from .86 to .96 indicate high internal consistency for all age groups on all scales.

The Standard Error of Measurement ranged from 2.00 to 3.39 for all age groups on all scales, indicating good reliability. Test-retest reliability ranged from .74 to .93 for all age groups and genders on all scales.

Validity was established through significant correlations among scales within normative groups and by correlations with other instruments measuring similar characteristics.


#57 Vanderbilt Assessment Scales
Introduction
Title:
Vanderbilt Assessment Scales
Author:
Wolraich, M.
Date:
2002
Domain:
Child and Family Health, Child Development, Parenting
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Pre-post surveys from parent informants and teacher informants
Uses of Information:
The Vanderbilt Assessment Scales are part of a toolkit designed to assist clinicians in providing quality care for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by providing a basis for coordinated, integrated, and multidisciplinary care.

Assessment information may be used for screening, referrals, diagnosis (in combination with other tools), monitoring progress, and evaluating outcomes.
Environment:
Classrooms, home-based intervention, and family-focused intervention
Description:
The Vanderbilt Assessment Scales include a Parent Informant and Teacher Informant initial assessment scale of child behavior that corresponds to the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD, as well as screens for mood and anxiety symptoms, performance in school, and relationships at home, school, and community. Follow-up scales for parent and teacher informants are also available.
References:
Wolraich, Feurer, Hannah, Pinnock, & Baumgaertel, 1998; Wolraich, Hannah, Baumgaertel, & Feurer, 1998); Wolraich, Lambert, Doffing, Bickman, Simmons, & Worley, 2003
Cost:
Each separate scale (Vanderbilt Assessment Scale - Parent Informant; Vanderbilt Assessment Scale - Teacher Informant; Vanderbilt Assessment Scale Follow-up - Parent Informant; and Vanderbilt Assessment Scale Follow-up - Teacher Informant) is available for $19.95 from the American Academy of Pediatrics.

The Vanderbilt Assessment Scales are available through several websites identified below.
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. Contact Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Contact Information:
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: www.qualitytools.ahrq.gov

American Academy of Pediatrics: www.aap.org

Bright Futures Tools for Professionals: www.brightfutures.org

Mark Wolraich, M.D.
Shaun Walters Endowed Professor of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center
1100 Northeast 13th Street
Oklahoma City, OK 73117
405.271.6824
mark-wolraich@ouhsc.edu
Utility
Instructions:
The Vanderbilt Assessment Scales (both Parent and Teacher Informant) are used at intake to establish the frequency of behaviors. The Assessment Follow-up Scales (both Parent and Teacher Informant) are used postintervention to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment, or used periodically to monitor progress.
Administration:
The Vanderbilt Assessment Scales are completed by parents or teachers with paper and pencil at their convenience.
Qualification:
No special skills are required for administration.
Training Required:
The Vanderbilt Assessment Scales should be interpreted by those with professional training in child and adolescent development, including pediatric physicians, child and adolescent psychologists and psychiatrists, and child development specialists. Interdisciplinary teams (including parents, educators, and professionals) are especially helpful in interpreting results.
Administration Time:
Administration of the Vanderbilt Assessment Scales is not timed.
Respondents:
Parents and teachers of children ages 6 to 12 years
Scales/Item Options:
The Vanderbilt Assessment Scales are scored from 0 (Never) to 3 (Very Often) for five dimensions: inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, combined (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), oppositional defiant and conduct disorders, and anxiety or depression symptoms.

Examples of items from the Teacher Informant form include:
  • "Is easily distracted by extraneous stimuli."
  • "Blurts out answers before questions have been completed."
  • "Has stolen items of nontrivial value."
Examples of items from the Parent Informant form include:
  • "Loses things necessary for tasks or activities (toys, assignments, pencils or books.)"
  • "Interrupts or intrudes on others' conversations and/or activities."
  • "Lies to get out of trouble or to avoid obligations (i.e., "cons" others)."
Academic, Child Behavioral Performance, and Relationships are also assessed on a scale from 1 (excellent) to 5 (problematic).
Scoring:
Scores are tallied for the dimensions listed above. Cutoff scores for each area indicate if a child has some impairment in that area. Scores should not be used alone to make any diagnosis but should be considered in combination with multiple data sources, e.g., observations, family and clinical interviews, and other assessments.
Languages:
English and Spanish
Psychometric Properties:
Longitudinal data were collected on 1,536 children in Grades kindergarten through 4. Fifty-two percent of the normative sample was African American. Chronbach's alpha was .90 or greater, indicating good internal consistency. Concurrent validity was calculated based on a comparison of the Vanderbilt Assessment Scales and the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (C-DISC-IV). A relatively high concurrent validity (.79) indicates that the instruments measure similar, but not the same, attributes and behaviors.


#58 Family Assessment Form
Introduction
Title:
Family Assessment Form
Author:
Children's Bureau of Southern California
Date:
Developed between 1985 and 1987
Domain:
Child and Family Health, Family Relationships, Parenting, Formal/Informal Sources of Support and Involvement
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Pre-post survey
Uses of Information:
Program evaluation/program planning for individual families
Environment:
The instrument should be completed after extended contact with the family in a home or program setting.
Description:
From the CWLA Catalog description:

"The Family Assessment Form (FAF) helps workers to assess families at the beginning of service, develop individualized family service plans, monitor family progress, and assess outcomes for individual families and programs. The FAF is designed as a standardized form but is adaptable in its implementation for a variety of clinical, procedural, and/or program needs. Using a nine-point rating scale, the FAF enables workers to complete a psychosocial assessment that is recorded in a quantitative manner and allows for monitoring family progress."

It assesses strengths as well as needs in six areas of family functioning: living conditions, financial conditions, interactions between adult caregivers, interactions between caregivers and children, support available to the family, and developmental stimulation available to the children.
References:
McCroskey, Sladen, & Meezan, 1997
Cost:
$14.95 (as of 2006) This cost includes an electronic database.
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes
Contact Information:
Child Welfare League of America
2345 Crystal Drive, Suite 250
Arlington, VA 22202
www.cwla.org
Utility
Instructions:
The assessment should be completed soon after the family has begun receiving services, and a service plan should be developed based on the strengths and needs identified. The assessment is then completed at service completion.
Administrator:
Home visitor, family support staff
Qualification:
Not specified, but the administrator should be very familiar with the family and have had at least three to four face-to-face contacts with them.
Training Required:
It is recommended that staff receive an initial 6 hours of training in using the tool and an additional 2 hours to use the software. Onsite training offered by the Children's Bureau can be arranged by contacting fafsupport@all4kids.org.
Administration Time:
A trained FAF user may be able to complete the initial family assessment in less than 1 hour. Workers generally need three to four contacts with the family to complete the initial assessment.
Respondents:
The FAF is for families who are receiving family support/intervention services. It can be used for primary, secondary, or tertiary prevention.
Scales/Item Options:
Items are scaled on a 1-5 Likert-type scale.

Example: "Understands Child Development"

1 = Above average understanding of child development

2 = Adequate knowledge of child development leading to age-appropriate expectations

3 = Limited knowledge in some areas leading to parental frustration over age-typical child behaviors

4 = Limited understanding; could place children at high-risk for emotional/and or physical abuse; sees problems that are not there, has unrealistic expectations of children

5 = Little knowledge of/inappropriate understanding of child development, which has resulted in some type of abuse or neglect
Scoring:
The rater scores parents based on established anchors described in the manual. Scores can be 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, and 5, with 5 being the poorest outcome and 1 being the best.
Languages:
Spanish and English
Psychometric Properties:
The FAM has been tested over the years for reliability and validity and a review of findings can be found on the following webpage:

www.familyassessmentform.com/research.html


#59 Coping Health Inventory for Parents
Introduction
Title:
Coping Health Inventory for Parents
Author:
McCubbin, H. I., McCubbin, M. A., Patterson, J. M., Cauble, A. E., Wilson, L. R., & Warwick, W.
Date:
1983
Domain:
Child and Family Health, Formal/Informal Sources of Support and Involvement, Child Development, Parenting Skills and Family Relationships
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Self-administered questionnaire
Uses of Information:
The instrument can be used to develop intervention strategies and measure change in parents' ability to cope when faced with parenting a child with chronic illness.
Environment:
Any setting that is free of distractions
Description:
The CHIP is a 45-item parent questionnaire used to assess a parent's perception of how he or she manages family life with a child with a chronic illness. It has three subscales:
  1. Maintaining family integration, cooperation, and an optimistic definition of the situation
  2. Maintaining social support, self-esteem, and psychological stability
  3. Understanding the medical situation through communication with other parents and consultation with medical staff
References:
McCubbin, McCubbin, Patterson, Cauble, Wilson, & Warwick, 1983
Cost:
$65, plus shipping and handling, for a CD. For additional information on ordering, visit http://homepage.mac.com/hamiltonmccubbin/Personal8.html

Call or email:
800.993.2665
608.257.9479 (fax)
Attn: Bob Kellough
bkellough@uwbookstore.com
Availability of Test Manual:
Yes. The CD that contains the CHIP also contains instructions.
Contact Information:
Hamilton I. McCubbin, Ph.D.
Professor & Director of Research and Evaluation
School of Social Work
University of Hawaii at Manoa
1800 East-West Road, 319a Henke Hall
Honolulu, HI 96822
him@hawaii.edu
Utility
Instructions:
Respondents rate how helpful each coping behavior was using this scale:
  1. Extremely helpful
  2. Moderately helpful
  3. Minimally helpful
  4. Not helpful
Administrator:
Self-administered
Qualification:
Not Specified
Training Required:
Users of the tool should review the manual, which includes instructions for research and clinical use.
Administration Time:
15-20 minutes
Respondents:
Parents with children with chronic or terminal illness or disability
Scales/Item Options:
4-point scale

Items include:
  • "Believing that my child(ren) will get better."
  • "Investing myself in my children."
  • "Doing things with my children."
  • "Believing that things will always work out."
  • "Telling myself that I have many things I should be thankful for."
  • "Building a closer relationship with my spouse."
  • "Talking over personal feelings and concerns with spouse."
All items can be viewed at this website:
http://chipts.ucla.edu/assessment/Assessment_Instruments/Assessment_files_new/assess_chip.htm

Scoring:
Scores are added up for a total score in each of the construct areas, (1. Maintaining family integration, cooperation, and an optimistic definition of the situation; 2. Maintaining social support, self-esteem and psychological stability; and 3. Understanding the medical situation through communication with other parents and consultation with medical staff) and are not separated out in the survey.
Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:
Internal consistency:
Cronbach alpha (Subscale 1) = 0.79
Cronbach alpha (Subscale 2) = 0.79
Cronbach alpha (Subscale 3) = 0.71 (McCubbin et al., 1983)


#60 Family Crisis Oriented Personal Scales, F-COPES
Introduction
Title:
Family Crisis Oriented Personal Scales, F-COPES
Author:
McCubbin, H. I., Olson, D. H., & Larsen, A. S.
Date:
1991
Domain:
Child and Family Health, Formal/Informal Sources of Support and Involvement, Family Relationships
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Self-administered survey
Uses of Information:
The scale is used to identify problem-solving and behavioral strategies used by families when faced with problems or crises. It can be used to as a pre- posttest to measure change over time.
Environment:
Any setting that is free of distractions
Description:
This scale has 30 items that describe a variety of coping behaviors that individuals may use in times of stress or crisis. The respondent rates the items on a 1-5 scale with 1, "Strongly disagree," and 5, "Strongly Agree."
References:
Family crisis orientated personal evaluation scales (1987, 1991); McCubbin, Olson, Larsen, Corcoran, and Fischer, 2000
Cost:
$5.00, which covers a one-time copyright fee
Availability of Test Manual:
Not specified
Contact Information:
To obtain permission to use the scales, contact:
Family Stress Coping and Health Project
1300 Linden Drive
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison, WI 53706
608.262.5070
Utility
Instructions:
Respondents rate the degree to which they agree or disagree with each of 30 coping behaviors.
Administrator:
Self-administered
Qualification:
N/A
Training Required:
N/A
Administration Time:
10-15 minutes
Respondents:
Family members
Scales/Item Options:
5-point scale that measures five factors

Items include:
  1. Sharing our difficulties with relatives
  2. Seeking encouragement and support from friends
  3. Knowing we have the power to solve major problems
Scoring:
Scores are added up for a total score in each of the following factor-areas:
  1. Acquiring social support
  2. Reframing
  3. Seeking spiritual support
  4. Mobilizing to acquire and accept help
  5. Passive appraisal
Some items are reverse scored.
Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:
Overall reliability of the F-COPES using Cronbach's alpha has been estimated as ranging from .77 to .86. Individual subscales had alphas ranging from .63 to .83. Overall test-retest reliability is .81, with individual scales ranging from .61 to .95.


#61 Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors (ISSB)
Introduction
Title:
Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors (ISSB)
Author:
Barerra, M., Sandler, I. N., & Ramsay, T. B.
Date:
1981
Domain:
Formal/Informal Sources of Support and Involvement, Family Relationships
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Self-administered questionnaire
Uses of Information:
The scale is used for measuring the extent of social support systems the respondent has experienced in the last 4 weeks.
Environment:
As the tool is self-administered, it can be done in a variety of environments, provided the respondent is relatively free of distractions.
Description:
This scale has 40 items that examine both emotional support and tangible support. Emotional support is the extent to which the respondent perceives that others give him/her care and love. Tangible support is the extent that others assist an individual in providing or helping obtain concrete materials/supplies needed for daily living.
References:
www.springerlink.com/content/t48258520k2hw337/

Barrera, Sandler, & Ramsay,1981; Barrera, & Ainlay, 1983
Cost:
This scale is in the public domain and is free.
Availability of Test Manual:
Not specified
Contact Information:
A copy of the scale and scoring instructions can be examined and copied on the following webpage:
Utility
Instructions:
To score, add up the ratings (some items are reverse rated). Divide the total number of points by the number of items answered. The higher the score, the greater the social support.
Administrator:
Clinician, home visitor, parent educator
Qualification:
None specified
Training Required:
None specified
Administration Time:
Approximately 10-15 minutes
Respondents:
The questionnaire is self-administered and is intended for adults and adolescents.
Scales/Item Options:
1-5 scale

Examples of items:
  1. Looked after a family member when you were away
  2. Was right there with you (physically) in a stressful situation
  3. Provided you with a place where you could get away for awhile
  4. Watched after your possessions when you were away (pets, plants, home, apartment, etc.)
  5. Told you what she/he did in a situation that was similar to yours
  6. Did some activity together to help you get your mind off of things
  7. Talked with you about some interests of yours
  8. Let you know that you did something well
Scoring:
The respondent rates the frequency of events by rating them as occurring:
  1. Not at all
  2. Once or twice
  3. About once a week
  4. Several times a week
  5. About every day
Languages:
Spanish, French, English
Psychometric Properties:
Several studies on the reliability of the ISSB have found total reliabilities over .9, with internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha = 0.926 to 0.94. Test-retest reliabilities have varied from .63 to .88, depending on the length of the time between tests.


#62 Protective Factors Survey (PFS)
Introduction
Title:
#62 Protective Factors Survey (PFS)
Author:
The University of Kansas Institute for Educational Research & Public Service in partnership with the FRIENDS National Resource Center for Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention1

1 Funding for the development of the PFS was provided by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Date:
2008
Domain:
Parenting Skills, Formal and Informal Sources of Support, Family Relationships
Standardized:
No
Instrument Type(s):
Caregiver self-report
Uses of Information:
The PFS was developed as a brief, practical tool for paraprofessional and professional staff to measure family protective factors in order to guide intervention services, monitor family progress, and evaluate program outcomes. In addition to caregiver assessment, the PFS can be used to inform family goals, open dialogs with families about parenting strategies that promote their child's development and learning, facilitate case reviews, monitor changes in parenting behavior, and evaluate parenting outcomes.
Environment:
Any familiar setting where the caregiver is comfortable
Description:
The Protective Factors Survey is a pencil and paper survey. The survey takes approximately 10-15 minutes to complete. The instrument is divided into two sections, the first section to be completed by a program staff member and the second section to be completed by the caregiver. The caregiver portion of the survey contains the core questions of the survey. In the demographic section, participants are asked to provide details about their family composition, income, and involvement in services. In the family protective factors section, caregivers are asked to respond to a series of statements about their family, using a seven-point frequency or agreement scale.
References:
Counts, J., Buffington, E., Chang-Rios, K., Rasmussen, H., & Preacher, K. (Under Review, 2007)
Cost:
No cost. The PFS is in the public domain.
Availability of Test Manual:
The survey administration manual is available as part of the survey kit, available on the FRIENDS website. See contact information.
Contact Information:
FRIENDS NRC, http://www.friendsnrc.org/outcome/pfs.htm
Utility
Instructions:
Provided in survey administration manual
Administrator:
Paraprofessional or professional staff person who provides parenting education or support services to family and has participated in PFS administration training
Qualification:
PFS administration training
Training Required:
PowerPoint survey administration training may be accessed at http://www.friendsnrc.org/download/08confpres/PFS%20Survey%20Administration_March2008.ppt
Administration Time:
5 minutes for survey instruction, 10-15 minutes to complete
Respondents:
Caregivers
Scales/Item Options:
The PFS contains four scales (Family Functioning/Resiliency, Social Support, Concrete Support, and Nurturing and Attachment) and five items relating to child development/knowledge of parenting.
Family Functioning/Resiliency (5 items): Having adaptive skills and strategies to persevere in times of crisis. Family's ability to openly share positive and negative experiences and mobilize to accept, solve, and manage problems.
Social Support (3 items): Perceived informal support (from family, friends, and neighbors) that helps provide for emotional needs.
Concrete Support (3 items): Perceived access to tangible goods and services to help families cope with stress, particularly in times of crisis or intensified need.
Nurturing and Attachment (4 items): The emotional tie along with a pattern of positive interaction between the parent and child that develops over time.
Child Development/Knowledge of Parenting (5 items): Understanding and utilizing effective child management techniques and having age-appropriate expectations for children's abilities.
Scoring:
The four scales take only a few minutes to calculate. Item must first be scored in the same direction such that a higher score reflects a higher level of protective factors. After scores are properly oriented, scale scores can be obtained. For each scale, total the item scores and divide by the number of items completed. Scale scores should be interpreted using the 7-point response scale.
Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:
The four scales of the PFS demonstrate high internal consistency (.76 - .89). Temporal stability estimates are also adequate (.52 - .75). Content validity, construct validity, and criterion validity were also examined and provide evidence that the PFS is a valid measure of multiple protective factors against child maltreatment. In two separate studies, the PFS subscales were found to be negatively related to stress, depression, and risk for child maltreatment and positively related to adaptive coping and caregiver health.


#63 Family Functioning Style Scale
Introduction
Title:
Family Functioning Style Scale
Author:
Deal, A. G., Trivette, C. M., & Dunst, C. J
Date:
1988
Domain:
Family Resilience, Formal and Informal Sources of Support, Family Relationships
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Family Member(s) Self-Report
Uses of Information:
The scale was developed for family support/family resource programs to assess family strengths and capabilities for intervention purposes. It can be used as a pre-post test of program outcomes.
Environment:
The family member completes the tool in a center or home setting with staff available to answer questions. As needed, the form can be completed in an interview with the parent.
Description:

The Family Functioning Style Scale (FFSS) includes 26 items that assess various kinds of family strengths and capabilities. The instrument was developed as part of a family-centered assessment and intervention model (Dunst, Trivette, & Deal, 1988) that has evolved from efforts to intervene in ways that support and strengthen family functioning. The scale assesses the extent to which an individual family member, or two or more family members completing the scale together, believe their family is characterized by different strengths and capabilities.

References:

Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Deal, A. G. (1994). Supporting and strengthening families: Vol. 1. Methods, strategies and practices. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.

McCubbin, M. A., McCubbin, H. I., & Thompson, A. I. (1987). Family hardiness index. In H. I. McCubbin & A. I. Thompson (Eds.), Family assessment inventories for research and practice (pp. 125-130). Madison: University of Wisconsin.

Stinnett, N., Tucker, D. M., & Shell, D. F. (1985). Executive families: Strengths, stress, and loneliness. Wellness Perspectives, 2(1), 21-29.

Williams, R., Lingren, H., Rowe, G., VanZandt, S., & Stinnett, N. (Eds.). Family strengths: Vol. 6. Enhancement of interaction. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, Department of Human Development.
Cost:

$25.00 for a 25-unit license download. Printed versions are available for order. A bulk discount for more than 100 unit licenses is available upon request.

Availability of Test Manual:

The reader is referred to Dunst, Trivette, and Deal (1994) for more in-depth information on using this scale.

Contact Information:

Please visit the author's site at www.wbpress.com and enter 8813 in the search field.

Utility
Instructions:
The family member reads each of the 26 items and circles the response that is most true for the family (people living in the home). The items are rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Not at All Like My Family" (1) to "Almost Always Like My Family" (5). Administrators may assist the respondent in completing the scale in an interview format as needed.
Administrator:
Home visitors, parent educators, family support program staff
Qualification:

Unspecified

Training Required:
No training requirement is specified by the developers. Some training support may be found in Supporting and Strengthening Families: Methods, Strategies, and Practices, published by Brookline Publishing.
Administration Time:
The scale can be completed in 15 to 25 minutes.
Respondents:
Parents, caregivers, or other family members.
Scales/Item Options:

The 26 items are grouped into five subscales: Interactional Patterns, Family Values, Coping Strategies, Family Commitment, and Resource Mobilization. Items include:

How is your family like the following statements?

  • We make personal sacrifices if they help our family.
  • We share our concerns and feelings in useful ways.
  • We are always willing to "pitch in" and help each other.
Scoring:

The administrator manually enters the individual score items in a score sheet. Sums are calculated for individual subscales and a total scale score.

Languages:
English. A Spanish translation is planned. Please check the website for updated information: www.wbpress.com.
Psychometric Properties:

The reliability and validity of the scale were established in a study of 241 parents of preschool-aged children. Data from this study indicate that the Family Functioning Style Scale (FFSS) is an internally consistent instrument. The predictive validity of the FFSS was examined in terms of its relationship to the personal and familial well-being of the respondents in the study. Elevated FFSS scores (total and factor scores) were related to fewer family-related health problems and a better overall sense of personal well-being and to fewer family-related health problems. Details of the psychometric properties are available with purchase of the scale.



#64 Health and Well-Being Index
Introduction
Title:
Health and Well-Being Index
Author:
Dunst, C. J.
Date:
1986
Domain:
Family Resiliency, Child and Family Health
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Parent Self-Report
Uses of Information:
The Health and Well-Being Index (HWI) was designed for parents raising a child with a developmental delay or disability. It is a brief (five-item) survey that provides a broad measure of parents' perceptions of their physical and emotional well-being (physical health, emo­tional and psychological health, coping with day-to-day demands, coping with rearing a child with a disability or delay, and stress management).
Environment:
The parent completes the tool in a center or home setting with staff available to answer questions.
Description:

Paper and pencil instrument. Five items are rated using a 5-point Likert scale.

References:

Dunst, C. J., & Leet, H. E. (1987). Measuring the adequacy of resources in households with young children. Child: Care, Health and Development, 13, 111-125.

Dunst, C. J., Leet, H. E., & Trivette, C. M. (1988). Family resources, personal well-being, and early intervention. Journal of Special Education, 22, 108-116.
Cost:

$3.00 for a single-unit license or $13.00 for a 25-unit license download. Printed versions are available for order.

Availability of Test Manual:

Unspecified. Contact Winterberry Press for technical information regarding the use of the Health and Well-Being Index: info@wbpress.com or 1-800-824-1182.

Contact Information:

Please visit the author's website at www.wbpress.com and follow links to item #8620.

Utility
Instructions:
Parents or caregivers rate items according to how they have felt during the past several months. Administrators may assist respondents in completing the scale in an interview format as needed.
Administrator:
Home visitors, parent educators, family support program staff
Qualification:

Unspecified

Training Required:
No training requirement is specified by the developers. Some training support may be found in Supporting and Strengthening Families: Methods, Strategies, and Practices, published by Brookline Publishing.
Administration Time:
The scale takes less than a minute to complete.
Respondents:
Parents or caregivers of children with a disability or developmental delay.
Scales/Item Options:

How would you say you feel about:

  • Your ability to deal with day-to-day demands
  • Your ability to handle stressful situations
Scoring:

After the parent or caregiver has completed the scale, the administrator sums the responses on all five items to provide a global measure of parental health and well-being.

Languages:
English: www.wbpress.com.
Psychometric Properties:

The reliability and validity of the scale were estab­lished in a study of 45 mothers of preschool-aged children with disabilities or delays and children at risk for poor de­velopmental outcomes. The Health and Well-Being Index scores were sig­nificantly related to overall adequacy of family resources (r = 0.56, p < .001) and both intrafamily (r = 0.68, p < .001) and extrafamily (r = 0.75, p < .001) support. Details of the scale's psychometric properties are available with purchase of the scale.



#65 Inventory of Social Support
Introduction
Title:
Inventory of Social Support
Author:
Dunst, C. J., & Trivette, C. M.
Date:
1988
Domain:
Formal and Informal Sources of Support, Social Connections
Standardized:
Yes
Instrument Type(s):
Self-Report Survey
Uses of Information:
The Inventory of Social Support provides a way of determining the types of assistance that are provided to a respondent by different individuals, groups, and agencies that make up a person's personal social network. The information can be used to develop intervention plans and as a pre-post measure of social connections.
Environment:
The respondent completes the tool in a center or home setting with staff available to answer questions. As needed, the form may be completed in an interview with the parent.
Description:

The Inventory of Social Support has two sections: The first asks the respondent to indicate the amount of contact—face to face, in a group, or by telephone or email—he or she has with different members of the person's social network. In the second section of the inventory, the respondent is asked to indicate whom he or she goes to or receives help from for 12 different types of assistance.

References:

Dunst, C. J., & Trivette, C. M. (1988a). A family systems model of early intervention with handicapped and developmentally at-risk children. In D. P. Powell (Ed.), Parent education as early childhood intervention: Emerging directions in theory, research, and practice (pp. 131-179). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

McCubbin, H. I., Comeau, J. K., & Harkins, J. A. (1981). Family inventory of resources for management. In H. I. McCubbin & J. M. Patterson (Eds.), Systematic assessment of family stress, resources and coping (pp. 67-69). St. Paul, MN: Family Stress and Coping Project.
Cost:

$25.00 for a 25-unit license download. Printed versions are available for order. A bulk discount for more than 100 unit licenses is available upon request.

Availability of Test Manual:

Unspecified. Contact Winterberry Press for technical information regarding the use of the Inventory of Social Support: info@wbpress.com or 1-800-824-1182.

Contact Information:

Please visit the author's site at www.wbpress.com and enter 8814 in the search field.

Utility
Instructions:
In the first section of the inventory, respondents report how much contact they have had with a given individual or group using a 5-point scale in which 1 indicates "Not At All" and 5 indicates "Almost Every Day." In the second part of the survey, 12 types of assistance are listed. Respondents are asked to identify the groups or individuals they go to for each type of assistance listed.
Administrator:
Home visitors, parent educators, family support program staff
Qualification:

Unspecified

Training Required:
No training requirement is specified by the developers. Some training support may be found in Supporting and Strengthening Families: Methods, Strategies, and Practices, published by Brookline Publishing.
Administration Time:
The inventory takes between 15 and 25 minutes to complete.
Respondents:
Parents or caregivers
Scales/Item Options:

The first section asks respondents to rate how often they have had contact with different individuals or groups in the past month. The rating options are "Not at All," "Once or Twice," "Up to 10 Times," "Up to 20 Times," "Almost Every Day." Item examples include:

How frequently have you had contact with each of the following during the past month?

  • Spouse or partner
  • Parents
  • Early Childhood Intervention Program 

The second section asks respondents to identify the groups or individuals they go to when they need specific types of assistance. Item examples include:

Which person(s) and/or groups provide you help or assistance with each of the following?

  • Whom do you go to for help or to talk with?
  • Who encourages or keeps you going when things get hard?
  • Who helps you learn about services for your child and family?
Scoring:

The inventory does not yield a numeric score; rather, the inventory is organized in a matrix format. A completed matrix provides a graphic display of the respondent's personal social network in terms of both source and type of support.

Languages:
English
Psychometric Properties:

Details of the psychometric properties are available with purchase of the scale.



 
 
Friends Logo The Logic Model Builder was a collaborative effort between the FRIENDS National Resource Center for Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention (www.friendsnrc.org), who developed the content, and the National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information (nccanch.acf.hhs.gov), who created the database.